Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Chemical Composition and Seasonal Variation of Acid Deposition in Chiang Mai, Thailand
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 15, Issue 2,  2010, pp.93-98
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.093
 Title & Authors
Chemical Composition and Seasonal Variation of Acid Deposition in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Sillapapiromsuk, S.; Chantara, S.;
  PDF(new window)
This study aims to determine the chemical composition and seasonal variation of atmospheric acid deposition in order to identify possible sources contributing to precipitation. Sampling and analysis of 132 wet deposition samples were carried out from January to December 2008 at Mae Hia Research Center, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Province. Total precipitation was 1,286.7 mm. Mean electro-conductivity and pH values were 0.94 mS/m and 6.27, respectively. Major cations (, , , , and ) and major anions (, , , , and ) were determined by Ion Chromatography. The relative volume weight mean concentrations of anions, in descending order, were > > > > and those of cations were > > > > . Results of a principle component analysis highlighted the influence of various possible sources of ions such as agricultural activity, fuel combustion, marine sources, soil resuspension, and biomass burning.
Acid deposition;Chemical composition;Principle component analysis;Seasonal variation;
 Cited by
Kirby CS, McInerney B, Turner MD. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry. Sci. Total Environ. 2008;393:249-261. crossref(new window)

Munger JW. Chemistry of atmospheric precipitation in the north-central United States: Influence of sulfate, nitrate, ammonia and calcareous soil particulates. Atmos. Environ. 1982;16:1633-1645. crossref(new window)

Al-Momani IF, Tuncel S, Eler U, Ortel E, Sirin G, Tuncel G. Major ion composition of wet and dry deposition in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Sci. Total Environ. 1995;164:75-85. crossref(new window)

Schuurkes JAAR, Maenen MMJ, Roelofs JGM. Chemical characteristics of precipitation in $NH_3$-affected areas. Atmos. Environ. 1988;22:1689-1698. crossref(new window)

Plaisance H, Galloo JC, Guillermo R. Source identification and variation in the chemical composition of precipitation at two rural sites in France. Sci. Total Environ. 1997;206:79-93. crossref(new window)

Seto S, Hara H. Precipitation chemistry in western Japan: Its relationship to meteorological parameters. Atmos. Environ. 2006;40:1538-1549. crossref(new window)

Strayer H, Smith R, Mizak C, Poor N. Influence of air mass origin on the wet deposition of nitrogen to Tampa Bay, Florida-An eight-year study. Atmos. Environ. 2007;41:4310-4322. crossref(new window)

Chandra Mouli P, Venkata Mohan S, Reddy SJ. Rainwater chemistry at a regional representative urban site: Influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition. Atmos. Environ. 2005;39:999-1008. crossref(new window)

Andre F, Jonard M, Ponette Q. Influence of meteorological factors and polluting environment on rain chemistry and wet deposition in a rural area near Chimay, Belgium. Atmos. Environ. 2007;41:1426-1439. crossref(new window)

Galloway JN, Knap AH, Church TM. The composition of western Atlantic precipitation using shipboard collectors. J. Geophys. Res. 1983;88:10859-10864. crossref(new window)

Smirnioudi VN, Siskos PA. Chemical composition of wet and dust deposition in Athens, Greece. Atmos. Environ. Part B: Urban Atmos. 1992;26 B:483-490.

Tuncel SG, Ungor S. Rain water chemistry in Ankara, Turkey. Atmos. Environ. 1996;30:2721-2727. crossref(new window)

Lee BK, Hong SH, Lee DS. Chemical composition of precipitation and wet deposition of major ions on the Korean peninsula. Atmos. Environ. 2000;34:563-575. crossref(new window)

Higashino H, Tonooka Y, Yanagisawa Y, Ikeda Y. Emission inventoryof SO2, and NOx in East Asia with grid data system. In: Murano K, ed. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Unification of Monitoring Protocol of Acid Deposition and Standardization of Emission Inventory; Tsukuba, Japan; 1997. p. 124-144.

Balasubramanian R, Victor T, Begum R. Impact of biomass burning on rainwater acidity and composition in Singapore. J. Geophys. Res. D: Atmos. 1999;104:26881-26890. crossref(new window)

Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Technical Documents for Wet Deposition Monitoring in East Asia; 2000. Available from:

Chantara S, Chunsuk N. Comparison of wet-only and bulk deposition at Chiang Mai (Thailand) based on rainwater chemical composition. Atmos. Environ. 2008;42:5511-5518. crossref(new window)

Quality assurance handbook for air pollution measurement systems. Vol. V: Precision measurement systems. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Report No.: EPA/600/R-94/038E.

Possanzini M, Buttini P, Di Palo V. Characterization of a rural area in terms of dry and wet deposition. Sci. Total Environ. 1988;74:111-120. crossref(new window)

Vong RJ. Mid-latitude northern hemisphere background sulfate concentration in rainwater. Atmos. Environ. Part A: Gen. Top. 1990;24:1007-1018. crossref(new window)

Ayers GP, Yeung KK. Acid deposition in Hong Kong. Atmos. Environ. 1996;30:1581-1587. crossref(new window)

Huang DY, Xu YG, Peng P, Zhang HH, Lan JB. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of acid deposition in Guangzhou, South China: Comparison with precipitation in other major Chinese cities. Environ. Pollut. 2009;157:35-41. crossref(new window)

Zhang M, Wang S, Wu F, Yuan X, Zhang Y. Chemical compositions of wet precipitation and anthropogenic influences at a developing urban site in southeastern China. Atmos. Res. 2007;84:311-322. crossref(new window)

Hu GP, Balasubramanian R, Wu CD. Chemical characterization of rainwater at Singapore. Chemosphere 2003;51:747-755. crossref(new window)

Saarikoski S, Sillanpaa M, Sofiev M, et al. Chemical composition of aerosols during a major biomass burning episode over northern Europe in spring 2006: Experimental and modelling assessments. Atmos. Environ. 2007;41:3577-3589. crossref(new window)