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Rubbish, Stink, and Death: The Historical Evolution, Present State, and Future Direction of Water-Quality Management and Modeling
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  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 16, Issue 3,  2011, pp.113-119
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2011.16.3.113
 Title & Authors
Rubbish, Stink, and Death: The Historical Evolution, Present State, and Future Direction of Water-Quality Management and Modeling
Chapra, Steven C.;
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This study traces the origin, evolution, and current state-of-the-art of engineering-oriented water-quality management and modeling. Three attributes of polluted water underlie human concerns for water quality: rubbish (aesthetic impairment), stink (ecosystem impairment), and death (public health impairment). The historical roots of both modern environmental engineering and water-quality modeling are traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when European and American engineers worked to control and manage urban wastewater. The subsequent evolution of water-quality modeling can be divided into four stages related to dissolved oxygen (1925-1960), computerization (1960-1970), eutrophication (1970-1977) and toxic substances (1977-1990). Current efforts to integrate these stages into unified holistic frameworks are described. The role of water-quality management and modeling for developing economies is outlined.
Environmental engineering;Water-quality management;Water-quality modeling;
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