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Ultrasonic Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Seawater and Brackish Water
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  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 16, Issue 3,  2011, pp.137-148
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2011.16.3.137
 Title & Authors
Ultrasonic Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Seawater and Brackish Water
Park, So-Young; Park, Jong-Sung; Lee, Ha-Yoon; Heo, Ji-Yong; Yoon, Yeo-Min; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Her, Nam-Guk;
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In this study, a series of experiments was conducted on the relative degradation of commonly known endocrine-disrupting compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and -ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in a single-component aqueous solution using 28 and 580 kHz ultrasonic reactors. The experiments were conducted with three different types of model water: deionized water (DI), synthetic brackish water (SBW), and synthetic seawater (SSW) at pH 4, 7.5, and 11 in the presence of inert glass beads and humic acids. Significantly higher sonochemical degradation (93-97% for BPA) occurred at 580 kHz than at 28 kHz (43-61% for BPA), regardless of water type. A slightly higher degradation was observed for EE2 compared to that of BPA. The degradation rate of BPA and EE2 in DI water, SBW, and SSW after 30 min of ultrasound irradiation at 580 kHz increased slightly with the increase in pH from 4 (0.073-0.091 for BPA and 0.081-0.094 for EE2) to 7.5 (0.087-0.114 for BPA and 0.092-0.124 for EE2). In contrast, significant degradation was observed at pH 11 (0.149-0.221 for BPA and 0.147-0.228 for EE2). For the given frequencies of 28 and 580 kHz, the degradation rate increased in the presence of glass beads (0.1 mm and 25 g) for both BPA and EE2: 0.018-0.107 without beads and 0.052-0.142 with beads for BPA; 0.021-0.111 without beads and 0.054-0.136 with beads for EE2. A slight increase in degradation of both BPA and EE2 was found as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, humic acids) increased in both SBW and SSW: 0.107-0.115 in SBW and 0.087-0.101 in SSW for BPA; 0.111-0.111 in SWB and 0.092-0.105 in SSW for EE2. After 30 min of sonicating the humic acid solution, DOC removal varied depending on the water type: 27% (3 mg ) and 7% (10 mg ) in SBW and 7% (3 mg ) and 4% (10 mg ) in SSW.
Bisphenol A;Brackish water;Endocrine disrupting compounds;Seawater;Sonochemical degradation;-ethinyl estradiol;
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