Shaffer PW, Ernst TL. Distribution of soil organic matter in freshwater emergent/open water wetlands in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Wetlands 1999;19:505-516.
Stolt MH, Genthner MH, Daniels WL, Groover VA, Nagle S, Haering KC. Comparison of soil and other environmental conditions in constructed and adjacent palustrine reference wetlands. Wetlands 2000;20:671-683.
Ahn C, Peralta RM. Soil properties are useful to examine denitrification function development in created mitigation wetlands. Ecol. Eng. 2012;49:130-136.
National Research Council. Compensating for wetland losses under the Clean Water Act. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001.
Bishel-Machung L, Brooks RP, Yates SS, Hoover KL. Soil properties of reference wetlands and wetland creation projects in Pennsylvania. Wetlands 1996;16:532-541.
Cole CA, Brooks RP, Wardrop DH. Assessing the relationship between biomass and soil organic matter in created wetlands of central Pennsylvania, USA. Ecol. Eng. 2001;17:423-428.
Campbell DA, Cole CA, Brooks RP. A comparison of created and natural wetlands in Pennsylvania, USA. Wetland Ecol. Manag. 2002;10:41-49.
Anderson CJ, Mitsch WJ, Nairn RW. Temporal and spatial development of surface soil conditions at two created riverine marshes. J. Environ. Qual. 2005;34:2072-2081.
Anderson CJ, Mitsch WJ. Sediment, carbon, and nutrient accumulation at two 10-year-old created riverine marshes. Wetlands 2006;26:779-792.
Ballantine K, Schneider R. Fifty-five years of soil development in restored freshwater depressional wetlands. Ecol. Appl. 2009;19:1467-1480.
Bruland GL, Richardson CJ. Comparison of soil organic matter in created, restored and paired natural wetlands in North Carolina. Wetlands Ecol. Manag. 2006;14:245-251.
Odum EP. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 1969;164:262-270.
Bruland G, Richardson CJ. Spatial variability of soil properties in created, restored, and paired natural wetlands. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2005;69:273-284.
Wolf KL, Ahn C, Noe GB. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands. Wetlands 2011;31:699-712.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks DL, ed. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3: Chemical methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America; 1996. p. 961-1010.
Collins ME, Kuehl RJ. Organic matter accumulation and organic soils. In: Richardson JL, Vepraskas MJ, eds. Wetland soils: genesis, hydrology, landscapes, and classification. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers; 2001. p. 137-161.
Besasie NJ, Buckley ME. Carbon sequestration potential at central Wisconsin wetland reserve program sites. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2012;76:1904-1910.
Hook DD, McKee WH Jr, Williams TM, Jones S, Van Blaricom D, Parsons J. Hydrologic and wetland characteristics of a Piedmont bottom in South-Carolina. Water Air Soil Pollut. 1994;77:293-320.
Gardner WH. Water content. In: Klute A, ed. Methods of soil analysis. Part 1: Physical and mineralogical methods. 2nd ed. Madison: Soil Science Society of America; 1986. p. 493-544.
Thomas GW. Soil pH and soil acidity. In. Sparks DL, ed. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3: Chemical methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America; 1996. p. 475-490.
Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG. Wetlands. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2000.
Federal Interagency Committee for Wetland Delineation. Federal manual for identifying and delineating jurisdictional wetlands. Washington: US Army Corps of Engineers; 1989.
Nair VD, Graetz DA, Reddy RK, Olila OG. Soil development in phosphate-mined created wetlands of Florida, USA. Wetlands 2001;21:232-239.
Fajardo GI. Physical and chemical soil properties of ten Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) mitigation wetlands [master's thesis]. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Master Thesis, 2006.
Moser K, Ahn C, Noe G. Characterization of microtopography and its influence on vegetation patterns in created wetlands. Wetlands 2007;27:1081-1097.
Logsdon SD, Karlen DL. Bulk density as a soil quality indicator during conversion to no-tillage. Soil Tillage Res. 2004;78:143-149.
Petru BJ, Ahn C, Cheschier G. Alteration of soil hydraulic properties during the construction of mitigation wetlands in the Virginia Piedmont. Ecol. Eng. 2013;51:140-150.
Farrell JD, Ware S. Edaphic factors and forest vegetation in the Piedmont of Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 1991;118:161-169.
Sherwood WC, Hartshorn AS, Eaton LS. Soils, geomorphology, landscape evolution, and land use in the Virginia Piedmont and Blue Ridge. GSA Field Guide 2010;16:31-50.
Reddy KR, DeLaune RD. Biogeochemistry of wetlands: science and applications. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008.
Sollins P, Glassman C, Paul EA, et al. Soil carbon and nitrogen: pools and fractions. In: Robertson GP, et al, eds. Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 89-105.
Beauchamp EG, Trevors JT, Paul JW. Carbon sources for bacterial denitrification. Adv. Soil Sci. 1989;10:113-142.
Giese LA, Aust WM, Trettin CC, Kolka RK. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage and species richness in three South Carolina coastal plain riparian forests. Ecol. Eng. 2000;15:S157-170.
D'Angelo EM, Karathanasis AD, Sparks EJ, Ritchey SA, Wehr- McChesney SA. Soil carbon and microbial communities at mitigated and late successional bottomland forest wetlands. Wetlands 2005;25:162-175.
Euliss NH Jr., Gleason RA, Olness A, et al. North American prairie wetlands are important nonforested land-based carbon storage sites. Sci. Total Environ. 2006;361:179-188.
Kayranli B, Scholz M, Mustafa A, Hedmark A. Carbon storage and fluxes within freshwater wetlands: a critical review. Wetlands 2010;30:111-124.
Lal R. Carbon sequestration. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 2008;363:815-830.
Hossler K, Bouchard V. Soil development and establishment of carbon-based properties in created freshwater marshes. Ecol. Appl. 2010;20:539-553.
Spieles DJ. Vegetation development in created, restored, and enhanced mitigation wetland banks of the United States. Wetlands 2005;25:51-63.