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Effect of Rotary Drum on the Speciation of Heavy Metals during Water Hyacinth Composting
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  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 18, Issue 3,  2013, pp.177-189
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.177
 Title & Authors
Effect of Rotary Drum on the Speciation of Heavy Metals during Water Hyacinth Composting
Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S.;
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Studies were carried out on the speciation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) during rotary drum composting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for a period of 20 days. Five different proportions of cattle manure, water hyacinth and sawdust were prepared for composting. This study concluded that, rotary drum was very efficient for the degradation of organic matter as well as for the reduction of mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting. The results from the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals shows that rotary drum composting changed the distribution of five fractions of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. The highest reduction in the bioavailability factors of Pb and Cd was observed during the process. The total concentration of Cu, Cr, and Cd was very low compared to the other metals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Pb); however, the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions of these metals was similar to other metals. These results confirmed that the bioavailability of metals does not depend on the total concentration of metals. From this study, it can be concluded that the addition of an appropriate proportion of cattle manure significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during water hyacinth composting in rotary drum.
Bioavailability factor;Heavy metal;Rotary drum;Speciation;Water hyacinth;
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