JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Natural Organic Matter Removal and Fouling Control in Low-Pressure Membrane Filtration for Water Treatment
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 19, Issue 1,  2014, pp.1-8
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.1.001
 Title & Authors
Natural Organic Matter Removal and Fouling Control in Low-Pressure Membrane Filtration for Water Treatment
Cui, Xiaojun; Choo, Kwang-Ho;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a primary component of fouling in low-pressure membrane filtration, either solely, or in concert with colloidal particles. Various preventive measures to interfere with NOM fouling have been developed and extensively tested, such as coagulation, oxidation, ion exchange, carbon adsorption, and mineral oxide adsorption. Therefore, this article aims to conduct a literature review covering the topics of low-pressure membrane processes, NOM characteristics and fouling behaviors, and diverse fouling control strategies. In-depth explanations and discussion are made regarding why some treatment options are able to remove NOM from source water, but do not reduce fouling. This review provides insight for hybridized membrane processes with respect to NOM removal and fouling mitigation in water treatment.
 Keywords
Adsorption;Coagulation;Microfiltration;Natural organic matter;Oxidation;Ultrafiltration;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Experimental investigation and modeling of industrial oily wastewater treatment using modified polyethersulfone ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes,;;;;

The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015. vol.32. 6, pp.1101-1118 crossref(new window)
2.
Reduction of biofouling using vanillin as a quorum sensing inhibitory agent in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment,;;;;;

Membrane Water Treatment, 2015. vol.6. 3, pp.189-203 crossref(new window)
3.
Microalgae membrane photobioreactor for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from secondary sewage effluent,;;

The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015. vol.32. 10, pp.2047-2052 crossref(new window)
1.
Experimental investigation and modeling of industrial oily wastewater treatment using modified polyethersulfone ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015, 32, 6, 1101  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Comparison of low-pressure reverse osmosis filtration and polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration for the removal of Co and Sr from nuclear plant wastewater, Separation and Purification Technology, 2016, 157, 209  crossref(new windwow)
3.
Activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced removal of bisphenol A and natural organic matter, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2015, 286, 315  crossref(new windwow)
4.
Membrane fouling control in low pressure membranes: A review on pretreatment techniques for fouling abatement, Environmental Engineering Research, 2016, 21, 2, 109  crossref(new windwow)
5.
Activation of persulfates by carbon nanotubes: Oxidation of organic compounds by nonradical mechanism, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2015, 266, 28  crossref(new windwow)
6.
Oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by non-radical mechanism using persulfate activated by Fe/S modified carbon nanotubes, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2016, 469, 277  crossref(new windwow)
7.
Efficacy of CNT-bound polyelectrolyte membrane by spray-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique on water purification, RSC Advances, 2014, 4, 62, 32858  crossref(new windwow)
8.
Fouling characteristics of NOM during the ceramic membrane microfiltration process for water treatment, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016, 57, 19, 9034  crossref(new windwow)
9.
Adsorption characteristics of effluent organic matter and natural organic matter by carbon based nanomaterials, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
10.
Photocatalytic mineralization of secondary effluent organic matter with mitigating fouling propensity in a submerged membrane photoreactor, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2016, 288, 798  crossref(new windwow)
11.
Virtual elimination of MF and UF fouling by adsorptive pre-coat filtration, Journal of Membrane Science, 2015, 479, 159  crossref(new windwow)
12.
Microalgae membrane photobioreactor for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from secondary sewage effluent, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015, 32, 10, 2047  crossref(new windwow)
13.
Membrane photoreactor treatment of 1,4-dioxane-containing textile wastewater effluent: Performance, modeling, and fouling control, Water Research, 2015, 86, 58  crossref(new windwow)
14.
Reduction of biofouling using vanillin as a quorum sensing inhibitory agent in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment, Membrane Water Treatment, 2015, 6, 3, 189  crossref(new windwow)
15.
Hydrophobic surface modification of membrane distillation (MD) membranes using water-repelling polymer based on urethane rubber, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016, 57, 22, 10031  crossref(new windwow)
16.
Synergistic combination of metal oxide adsorbents for enhanced fouling control and metal removal in a submerged membrane adsorber, Journal of Membrane Science, 2015, 490, 9  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Huang H, Schwab K, Jacangelo JG. Pretreatment for low pressure membranes in water treatment: a review. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009;43:3011-3019. crossref(new window)

2.
Yuan W, Zydney AL. Effects of solution environment on humic acid fouling during microfiltration. Desalination 1999;122:63-76. crossref(new window)

3.
Choo KH, Kang SK. Removal of residual organic matter from secondary effluent by iron oxides adsorption. Desalination 2003;154:139-146. crossref(new window)

4.
Lee KW, Choo KH, Choi SJ, Yamamoto K. Development of an integrated iron oxide adsorption/membrane separation system for water treatment. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply 2002;2:293-300.

5.
Ha TW, Choo KH, Choi SJ. Effect of chlorine on adsorption/ ultrafiltration treatment for removing natural organic matter in drinking water. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2004;274:587-593. crossref(new window)

6.
Choo KH, Tao R, Kim MJ. Use of a photocatalytic membrane reactor for the removal of natural organic matter in water: effect of photoinduced desorption and ferrihydrite adsorption. J. Membr. Sci. 2008;322:368-374. crossref(new window)

7.
Yao P, Choo KH, Kim MH. A hybridized photocatalysismicrofiltration system with iron oxide-coated membranes for the removal of natural organic matter in water treatment: effects of iron oxide layers and colloids. Water Res. 2009;43:4238-4248. crossref(new window)

8.
Chang YJ, Choo KH, Benjamin MM, Reiber S. Combined adsorption-UF process increases TOC removal. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 1998;90:90-102.

9.
Zhang M, Li C, Benjamin MM, Chang Y. Fouling and natural organic matter removal in adsorbent/membrane systems for drinking water treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003;37:1663-1669. crossref(new window)

10.
Kim J, Cai Z, Benjamin MM. Effects of adsorbents on membrane fouling by natural organic matter. J. Membr. Sci. 2008;310:356-364. crossref(new window)

11.
Cai Z, Kim J, Benjamin MM. NOM removal by adsorption and membrane filtration using heated aluminum oxide particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008;42:619-623. crossref(new window)

12.
Kim J, Cai Z, Benjamin MM. NOM fouling mechanisms in a hybrid adsorption/membrane system. J. Membr. Sci. 2010;349:35-43. crossref(new window)

13.
Chi FH, Amy GL. Kinetic study on the sorption of dissolved natural organic matter onto different aquifer materials: the effects of hydrophobicity and functional groups. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2004;274:380-391. crossref(new window)

14.
Kitis M, Kaplan SS, Karakaya E, Yigit NO, Civelekoglu G. Adsorption of natural organic matter from waters by iron coated pumice. Chemosphere 2007;66:130-138. crossref(new window)

15.
Kitis M, Kaplan SS. Advanced oxidation of natural organic matter using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles. Chemosphere 2007;68:1846-1853. crossref(new window)

16.
Ding C, Yang X, Liu W, Chang Y, Shang C. Removal of natural organic matter using surfactant-modified iron oxide-coated sand. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;174:567-572. crossref(new window)

17.
Foppen JW, Liem Y, Schijven J. Effect of humic acid on the attachment of Escherichia coli in columns of goethite-coated sand. Water Res. 2008;42:211-219. crossref(new window)

18.
Benjamin MM, Sletten RS, Bailey RP, Bennett T. Sorption and filtration of metals using iron-oxide-coated sand. Water Res. 1996;30:2609-2620. crossref(new window)

19.
Lai CH, Chen CY. Removal of metal ions and humic acid from water by iron-coated filter media. Chemosphere 2001;44:1177-1184. crossref(new window)

20.
Lee EK, Chen V, Fane AG. Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling in low pressure membrane filtration: effect of membranes and operation modes. Desalination 2008;218:257-270. crossref(new window)

21.
Lee N, Amy G, Croue JP, Buisson H. Identification and understanding of fouling in low-pressure membrane (MF/ UF) filtration by natural organic matter (NOM). Water Res. 2004;38:4511-4523. crossref(new window)

22.
Lee N, Amy G, Croue JP. Low-pressure membrane (MF/UF) fouling associated with allochthonous versus autochthonous natural organic matter. Water Res. 2006;40:2357-2368. crossref(new window)

23.
Lee N, Amy G, Croue JP, Buisson H. Morphological analyses of natural organic matter (NOM) fouling of low-pressure membranes (MF/UF). J. Membr. Sci. 2005;261:7-16. crossref(new window)

24.
Lee SJ, Choo KH, Lee CH. Conjunctive use of ultrafiltration with powdered activated carbon adsorption for removal of synthetic and natural organic matter. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2000; 6:357-364.

25.
Huang H, Lee N, Young T, Gary A, Lozier JC, Jacangelo JG. Natural organic matter fouling of low-pressure, hollow-fiber membranes: effects of NOM source and hydrodynamic conditions. Water Res. 2007;41:3823-3832 crossref(new window)

26.
Lee SA, Choo KH, Lee CH, et al. Use of ultrafiltration membranes for the separation of TiO2 photocatalysts in drinking water treatment. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2001;40:1712-1719. crossref(new window)

27.
Qu F, Liang H, Zhou J, et al. Ultrafiltration membrane fouling caused by extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Microcystis aeruginosa: effects of membrane pore size and surface hydrophobicity. J. Membr. Sci. 2014;449:58-66. crossref(new window)

28.
Katsoufidou K, Yiantsios SG, Karabelas AJ. A study of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by humic acids and flux recovery by backwashing: experiments and modeling. J. Membr. Sci. 2005;266:40-50. crossref(new window)

29.
Katsoufidou K, Yiantsios SG, Karabelas AJ. An experimental study of UF membrane fouling by humic acid and sodium alginate solutions: the effect of backwashing on flux recovery. Desalination 2008;220:214-227. crossref(new window)

30.
Wray HE, Andrews RC, Berube PR. Surface shear stress and retention of emerging contaminants during ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2014;122:183-191. crossref(new window)

31.
Wray HE, Andrews RC, Berube PR. Surface shear stress and membrane fouling when considering natural water matrices. Desalination 2013;330:22-27. crossref(new window)

32.
Akhondi E, Wicaksana F, Fane AG. Evaluation of fouling deposition, fouling reversibility and energy consumption of submerged hollow fiber membrane systems with periodic backwash. J. Membr. Sci. 2014;452:319-331. crossref(new window)

33.
Kimura K, Hane Y, Watanabe Y, Amy G, Ohkuma N. Irreversible membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of surface water. Water Res. 2004;38:3431-3441. crossref(new window)

34.
Fan L, Harris JL, Roddick FA, Booker NA. Influence of the characteristics of natural organic matter on the fouling of microfiltration membranes. Water Res. 2001;35:4455-4463. crossref(new window)

35.
Zularisam AW, Ismail AF, Salim MR, Sakinah M, Ozaki H. The effects of natural organic matter (NOM) fractions on fouling characteristics and flux recovery of ultrafiltration membranes. Desalination 2007;212:191-208. crossref(new window)

36.
Senesi N. Nature of interactions between organic chemicals and dissolved humic substances and the influence of environmental factors. In: Beck AJ, Jones KC, Hayes MH, eds. Organic substances in soil and water: natural constituents and their influence on contaminant behavior. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry; 1993. p. 73-101.

37.
Huang G, Meng F, Zheng X, et al. Biodegradation behavior of natural organic matter (NOM) in a biological aerated filter (BAF) as a pretreatment for ultrafiltration (UF) of river water. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011;90:1795-1803. crossref(new window)

38.
Kim HC, Yu MJ. Characterization of natural organic matter in conventional water treatment processes for selection of treatment processes focused on DBPs control. Water Res. 2005;39:4779-4789. crossref(new window)

39.
Taniguchi M, Kilduff JE, Belfort G. Modes of natural organic matter fouling during ultrafiltration. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003;37:1676-1683. crossref(new window)

40.
Jermann D, Pronk W, Meylan S, Boller M. Interplay of different NOM fouling mechanisms during ultrafiltration for drinking water production. Water Res. 2007;41:1713-1722. crossref(new window)

41.
Jermann D, Pronk W, Kagi R, Halbeisen M, Boller M. Influence of interactions between NOM and particles on UF fouling mechanisms. Water Res. 2008;42:3870-3878. crossref(new window)

42.
Jermann D, Pronk W, Boller M. Mutual influences between natural organic matter and inorganic particles and their combined effect on ultrafiltration membrane fouling. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008;42:9129-9136. crossref(new window)

43.
Howe KJ, Clark MM. Fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes by natural waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002;36:3571-3576. crossref(new window)

44.
Yuan W, Zydney AL. Humic acid fouling during ultrafiltration. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2000;34:5043-5050. crossref(new window)

45.
Yu CH, Wu CH, Lin CH, Hsiao CH, Lin CF. Hydrophobicity and molecular weight of humic substances on ultrafiltration fouling and resistance. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2008;64:206-212. crossref(new window)

46.
Zularisam AW, Ahmad A, Sakinah M, Ismail AF, Matsuura T. Role of natural organic matter (NOM), colloidal particles, and solution chemistry on ultrafiltration performance. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2011;78:189-200. crossref(new window)

47.
Yuan W, Zydney AL. Humic acid fouling during microfiltration. J. Membr. Sci. 1999;157:1-12. crossref(new window)

48.
Yuan W, Kocic A, Zydney AL. Analysis of humic acid fouling during microfiltration using a pore blockage-cake filtration model. J. Membr. Sci. 2002;198:51-62. crossref(new window)

49.
Costa AR, de Pinho MN, Elimelech M. Mechanisms of colloidal natural organic matter fouling in ultrafiltration. J. Membr. Sci. 2006;281:716-725. crossref(new window)

50.
Kim J, Shi W, Yuan Y, Benjamin MM. A serial filtration investigation of membrane fouling by natural organic matter. J. Membr. Sci. 2007;294:115-126. crossref(new window)

51.
Yamamura H, Chae S, Kimura K, Watanabe Y. Transition in fouling mechanism in microfiltration of a surface water. Water Res. 2007;41:3812-3822. crossref(new window)

52.
Yamamura H, Kimura K, Watanabe Y. Mechanism involved in the evolution of physically irreversible fouling in microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes used for drinking water treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007;41:6789-6794. crossref(new window)

53.
Haberkamp J, Ruhl AS, Ernst M, Jekel M. Impact of coagulation and adsorption on DOC fractions of secondary effluent and resulting fouling behaviour in ultrafiltration. Water Res. 2007;41:3794-3802. crossref(new window)

54.
Guigui C, Rouch JC, Durand-Bourlier L, Bonnelye V, Aptel P. Impact of coagulation conditions on the in-line coagulation/ UF process for drinking water production. Desalination 2002;147:95-100. crossref(new window)

55.
Park P, Lee C, Choi SJ, Choo KH, Kim SH, Yoon CH. Effect of the removal of DOMs on the performance of a coagulation- UF membrane system for drinking water production. Desalination 2002;145:237-245. crossref(new window)

56.
Tran T, Gray S, Naughton R, Bolto B. Polysilicato-iron for improved NOM removal and membrane performance. J. Membr. Sci. 2006;280:560-571. crossref(new window)

57.
Wang J, Wang XC. Ultrafiltration with in-line coagulation for the removal of natural humic acid and membrane fouling mechanism. J. Environ. Sci. (China) 2006;18:880-884. crossref(new window)

58.
Barbot E, Moustier S, Bottero JY, Moulin P. Coagulation and ultrafiltration: understanding of the key parameters of the hybrid process. J. Membr. Sci. 2008;325:520-527. crossref(new window)

59.
Lee BB, Choo KH, Chang D, Choi SJ. Optimizing the coagulant dose to control membrane fouling in combined coagulation/ ultrafiltration systems for textile wastewater reclamation. Chem. Eng. J. 2009;155:101-107. crossref(new window)

60.
Maartens A, Swart P, Jacobs EP. Feed-water pretreatment: methods to reduce membrane fouling by natural organic matter. J. Membr. Sci. 1999;163:51-62. crossref(new window)

61.
Carroll T, King S, Gray SR, Bolto BA, Booker NA. The fouling of microfiltration membranes by NOM after coagulation treatment. Water Res. 2000;34:2861-2868. crossref(new window)

62.
Kabsch-Korbutowicz M. Application of ultrafiltration integrated with coagulation for improved NOM removal. Desalination 2005;174:13-22. crossref(new window)

63.
Kimura K, Maeda T, Yamamura H, Watanabe Y. Irreversible membrane fouling in microfiltration membranes filtering coagulated surface water. J. Membr. Sci. 2008;320:356-362. crossref(new window)

64.
Song Y, Dong B, Gao N, Xia S. Huangpu River water treatment by microfiltration with ozone pretreatment. Desalination 2010;250:71-75. crossref(new window)

65.
Wang X, Wang L, Liu Y, Duan W. Ozonation pretreatment for ultrafiltration of the secondary effluent. J. Membr. Sci. 2007;287:187-191. crossref(new window)

66.
Karnik BS, Davies SH, Chen KC, Jaglowski DR, Baumann MJ, Masten SJ. Effects of ozonation on the permeate flux of nanocrystalline ceramic membranes. Water Res. 2005;39:728-34. crossref(new window)

67.
Oh BS, Jang HY, Hwang TM, Kang JW. Role of ozone for reducing fouling due to pharmaceuticals in MF (microfiltration) process. J. Membr. Sci. 2007;289:178-186. crossref(new window)

68.
Chae SR, Yamamura H, Ikeda K, Watanabe Y. Comparison of fouling characteristics of two different poly-vinylidene fluoride microfiltration membranes in a pilot-scale drinking water treatment system using pre-coagulation/sedimentation, sand filtration, and chlorination. Water Res. 2008;42:2029-2042. crossref(new window)

69.
Choo KH, Lee H, Choi SJ. Iron and manganese removal and membrane fouling during UF in conjunction with prechlorination for drinking water treatment. J. Membr. Sci. 2005;267:18-26. crossref(new window)

70.
Kim MJ, Choo KH, Park HS. Photocatalytic degradation of seawater organic matter using a submerged membrane reactor. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 2010;216:215-220. crossref(new window)

71.
Bolto B, Dixon D, Eldridge R, King S. Removal of THM precursors by coagulation or ion exchange. Water Res. 2002;36:5066-5073. crossref(new window)

72.
Bolto B, Dixon D, Eldridge R, King S, Linge K. Removal of natural organic matter by ion exchange. Water Res. 2002;36:5057-5065. crossref(new window)

73.
Bolto B, Dixon D, Eldridge R. Ion exchange for the removal of natural organic matter. React. Funct. Polym. 2004;60:171-182. crossref(new window)

74.
Fearing DA, Banks J, Guyetand S, et al. Combination of ferric and MIEX for the treatment of a humic rich water. Water Res. 2004;38:2551-2558. crossref(new window)

75.
Cornelissen ER, Moreau N, Siegers WG, et al. Selection of anionic exchange resins for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) fractions. Water Res. 2008;42:413-423. crossref(new window)

76.
Cornelissen ER, Beerendonk EF, Nederlof MN, van der Hoek JP, Wessels LP. Fluidized ion exchange (FIX) to control NOM fouling in ultrafiltration. Desalination 2009;236:334-341. crossref(new window)

77.
Han J, Kong C, Heo J, Yoon Y, Lee H, Her N. Removal of perchlorate using reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. Environ. Eng. Res. 2012;17:185-190. crossref(new window)

78.
Kabsch-Korbutowicz M, Majewska-Nowak K, Winnicki T. Water treatment using MIEX(R)DOC/ultrafiltration process. Desalination 2008;221:338-344. crossref(new window)

79.
Huang H, Cho HH, Schwab KJ, Jacangelo JG. Effects of magnetic ion exchange pretreatment on low pressure membrane filtration of natural surface water. Water Res. 2012;46:5483-5490. crossref(new window)

80.
Humbert H, Gallard H, Suty H, Croue JP. Performance of selected anion exchange resins for the treatment of a high DOC content surface water. Water Res. 2005;39:1699-1708. crossref(new window)

81.
Humbert H, Gallard H, Jacquemet V, Croue JP. Combination of coagulation and ion exchange for the reduction of UF fouling properties of a high DOC content surface water. Water Res. 2007;41:3803-3811. crossref(new window)

82.
Fabris R, Lee EK, Chow CWK, Chen V, Drikas M. Pre-treatments to reduce fouling of low pressure micro-filtration (MF) membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 2007;289:231-240. crossref(new window)

83.
Tsujimoto W, Kimura H, Izu T, Irie T. Membrane filtration and pre-treatment by GAC. Desalination 1998;119:323-326. crossref(new window)

84.
Kim KY, Kim HS, Kim J, Nam JW, Kim JM, Son S. A hybrid microfiltration-granular activated carbon system for water purification and wastewater reclamation/reuse. Desalination 2009;243:132-144. crossref(new window)

85.
Lin CF, Huang YJ, Hao OJ. Ultrafiltration processes for removing humic substances: effect of molecular weight fractions and PAC treatment. Water Res. 1999;33:1252-1264. crossref(new window)

86.
Li K, Qu F, Liang H, et al. Performance of mesoporous adsorbent resin and powdered activated carbon in mitigating ultrafiltration membrane fouling caused by algal extracellular organic matter. Desalination 2014;336:129-137. crossref(new window)

87.
Uyak V, Akdagli M, Cakmakci M, Koyuncu I. Natural organic matter removal and fouling in a low pressure hybrid membrane systems. Sci. World J. 2014;2014:11.

88.
Kang SK, Choo KH. Why does a mineral oxide adsorbent control fouling better than powdered activated carbon in hybrid ultrafiltration water treatment? J. Membr. Sci. 2010;355:69-77. crossref(new window)

89.
Campinas M, Rosa MJ. Assessing PAC contribution to the NOM fouling control in PAC/UF systems. Water Res. 2010;44:1636-1644. crossref(new window)

90.
Ding C, Shang C. Mechanisms controlling adsorption of natural organic matter on surfactant-modified iron oxidecoated sand. Water Res. 2010;44:3651-3658. crossref(new window)

91.
Gu B, Schmitt J, Chen Z, Liang L, McCarthy JF. Adsorption and desorption of natural organic matter on iron oxide: mechanisms and models. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1994;28:38-46. crossref(new window)

92.
Cui X, Choo KH. Granular iron oxide adsorbents to control natural organic matter and membrane fouling in ultrafiltration water treatment. Water Res. 2013;47:4227-4237. crossref(new window)

93.
Kim J, Deng Q, Benjamin MM. Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and foulants in a hybrid coagulation/membrane filtration system. Water Res. 2008;42:2017-2024. crossref(new window)

94.
Shi W, Benjamin MM. Membrane interactions with NOM and an adsorbent in a vibratory shear enhanced filtration process (VSEP) system. J. Membr. Sci. 2008;312:23-33. crossref(new window)

95.
Sperlich A, Werner A, Genz A, Amy G, Worch E, Jekel M. Breakthrough behavior of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) fixed-bed adsorption filters: modeling and experimental approaches. Water Res. 2005;39:1190-1198. crossref(new window)

96.
Sperlich A, Schimmelpfennig S, Baumgarten B, et al. Predicting anion breakthrough in granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) adsorption filters. Water Res. 2008;42:2073-2082. crossref(new window)

97.
Genz A, Baumgarten B, Goernitz M, Jekel M. NOM removal by adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide: equilibrium, kinetics, filter and regeneration studies. Water Res. 2008;42:238-248. crossref(new window)

98.
Gu B, Schmitt J, Chen Z, Liang L, McCarthy JF. Adsorption and desorption of different organic matter fractions on iron oxide. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1995;59:219-229. crossref(new window)

99.
Gu B, Mehlhorn TL, Liang L, McCarthy JF. Competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of organic matter on iron oxide: I. Competitive adsorption. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1996;60:1943-1950. crossref(new window)