JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: Current status and their future prospects
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 20, Issue 1,  2015, pp.1-18
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.018
 Title & Authors
Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: Current status and their future prospects
Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Nayak, Arunima; Agarwal, Shilpi;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The biosorption process has been established as characteristics of dead biomasses of both cellulosic and microbial origin to bind metal ion pollutants from aqueous suspension. The high effectiveness of this process even at low metal concentration, similarity to ion exchange treatment process, but cheaper and greener alternative to conventional techniques have resulted in a mature biosorption technology. Yet its adoption to large scale industrial wastewaters treatment has still been a distant reality. The purpose of this review is to make in-depth analyses of the various aspects of the biosorption technology, staring from the various biosorbents used till date and the various factors affecting the process. The design of better biosorbents for improving their physico-chemical features as well as enhancing their biosorption characteristics has been discussed. Better economic value of the biosorption technology is related to the repeated reuse of the biosorbent with minimum loss of efficiency. In this context desorption of the metal pollutants as well as regeneration of the biosorbent has been discussed in detail. Various inhibitions including the multi mechanistic role of the biosorption technology has been identified which have played a contributory role to its non-commercialization.
 Keywords
Algae;Bacteria;Biosorption;Fungi;Plant organic waste;Toxic metal;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of organophosphorus profenofos pesticide onto Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2016, 13, 5, 1393  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution by aminated pumpkin seed powder: Kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2016, 128, 109  crossref(new windwow)
3.
Activated carbon from Luffa cylindrica doped chitosan for mitigation of lead(ii) from an aqueous solution, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 27, 22639  crossref(new windwow)
4.
Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Polyethylene Waste/Nano-manganese Dioxide Composite, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
5.
Empirical and mechanistic evaluation of sodium exchange isotherms on natural mineral and organic adsorbents and organically functionalized nanoparticles, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2016, 13, 8, 1891  crossref(new windwow)
6.
Interfacial assembly of ZnO–cellulose nanocomposite films via a solution process: a one-step biomimetic approach and excellent photocatalytic properties, Cellulose, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
7.
Preparation and characterization of trihydroxamic acid functionalized carbon materials for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution, Applied Surface Science, 2016, 387, 128  crossref(new windwow)
8.
Microwave-assisted synthesis of tetraethylenepentamine functionalized activated carbon with high adsorption capacity for Malachite green dye, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 213, 317  crossref(new windwow)
9.
Biosorption Behavior and Reuse Potential of Waste Biomass of Aspergillus fumigatus, previously Used in Humic Acid Biosorption, in Removal of Reactive Blue 49, Environmental Processes, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
10.
Graphene-decorated 3D BiVO4 photocatalysts with controlled size and shape for efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic performance, Materials Letters, 2016, 184, 227  crossref(new windwow)
11.
Equilibrium kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Cr(VI) adsorption onto a novel adsorbent of Eucalyptus camaldulensis waste: Batch and column reactors, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016, 33, 10, 2898  crossref(new windwow)
12.
Ultrasound assisted adsorption of malachite green dye onto ZnS:Cu-NP-AC: Equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies – Response surface optimization, Separation and Purification Technology, 2015, 156, 780  crossref(new windwow)
13.
The retention profile of phosphate ions in aqueous media onto ion pairing immobilized polyurethane foam: Kinetics, sorption and chromatographic separation, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 220, 426  crossref(new windwow)
14.
Modeling of quaternary dyes adsorption onto ZnO–NR–AC artificial neural network: Analysis by derivative spectrophotometry, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2016, 34, 186  crossref(new windwow)
15.
Enhanced uptake of iodide on Ag@Cu2O nanoparticles, Chemosphere, 2016, 164, 396  crossref(new windwow)
16.
Powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide adsorption onto intrinsic and Pd doped Single walled carbon nanotube, Applied Surface Science, 2017, 392, 225  crossref(new windwow)
17.
Enhanced removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using polypyrrole wrapped oxidized MWCNTs nanocomposites adsorbent, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2016, 470, 257  crossref(new windwow)
18.
Preparation of activated carbons from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) palm stones and application for wastewater treatments: Review, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2016, 102, 168  crossref(new windwow)
19.
Biosorption capacity and kinetics of cadmium(II) on live and dead Chlorella vulgaris, Journal of Applied Phycology, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
20.
Application of mesoporous magnetic carbon composite for reactive dyes removal: Process optimization using response surface methodology, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016, 33, 10, 2878  crossref(new windwow)
21.
Prediction of Cu(II) biosorption performances on wild mushrooms Lactarius piperatus using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
22.
Adsorptive properties of molasses modified boron enrichment waste based nanoclay for removal of basic dyes, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2016, 34, 244  crossref(new windwow)
23.
Preparation and Characterization of Azadirachtin Alginate-Biosorbent Based Formulations: Water Release Kinetics and Photodegradation Study, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015, 63, 38, 8391  crossref(new windwow)
24.
Adsorption performance and mechanism of methylene blue on chemically activated carbon spheres derived from hydrothermally-prepared poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 220, 56  crossref(new windwow)
25.
The use of low-cost adsorbent (Canola residues) for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Colloids and Interface Science Communications, 2015, 7, 16  crossref(new windwow)
26.
Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review, Journal of Environmental Management, 2016, 166, 55  crossref(new windwow)
27.
In situ impregnation−gelation−hydrothermal crystallization synthesis of hollow fiber zeolite NaA membrane, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
28.
Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Macadamia nutshell powder, Applied Water Science, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
29.
Preparation and characterization of TiO2 incorporated 13X molecular sieves for photocatalytic removal of acetaminophen from aqueous solutions, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2016, 104, 334  crossref(new windwow)
30.
Low-cost magnetized Lonicera japonica flower biomass for the sorption removal of heavy metals, Hydrometallurgy, 2016, 165, 81  crossref(new windwow)
31.
Oxidation of municipal wastewater by free radicals mechanism. A UV/Vis spectroscopy study, Journal of Environmental Management, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
32.
Synthesis and characterization of magnetron sputtered ZrO2 nanoparticles: Decontamination of 2-choloro ethyl ethyl sulphide and dimethyl methyl phosphonate, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2016, 4, 1, 219  crossref(new windwow)
33.
Application of magnetic nanocomposite modified with a thiourea based ligand for the preconcentration and trace detection of silver(I) ions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2016, 290, 53  crossref(new windwow)
34.
Adsorptive Removal of Malachite Green Chloride and Reactive Red-198 from Aqueous Solutions by Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes-Graft-Poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid), Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 2016  crossref(new windwow)
35.
Adsorption of ethidium bromide (EtBr) from aqueous solutions by natural pumice and aluminium-coated pumice, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 213, 41  crossref(new windwow)
36.
Characterization of agro-waste resources for potential use as proppant in hydraulic fracturing, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2016, 36, 679  crossref(new windwow)
37.
Mono and simultaneous removal of crystal violet and safranin dyes from aqueous solutions by HDTMA-modified Spirulina sp., Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2016, 99, 194  crossref(new windwow)
38.
Lead(II)-ion removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ligand functionalized magnetic chitosan-aluminum oxide-iron oxide nanoadsorbents and microadsorbents: Equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2017, 134, 4  crossref(new windwow)
39.
Application of non-fluorescent carbon particles as scavengers for heavy metal ions: A waste utilisation approach, Separation Science and Technology, 2016, 51, 10, 1618  crossref(new windwow)
40.
Exploited application of sulfate-reducing bacteria for concomitant treatment of metallic and non-metallic wastes: a mini review, 3 Biotech, 2016, 6, 2  crossref(new windwow)
41.
Enhanced Fenton-like degradation of methylene blue by magnetically activated carbon/hydrogen peroxide with hydroxylamine as Fenton enhancer, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 216, 781  crossref(new windwow)
42.
Efficient removal of methylene blue in aqueous solution by freeze-dried calcium alginate beads, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016, 33, 11, 3141  crossref(new windwow)
43.
Nanoalginate based biosorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and kinetic studies, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2015, 122, 17  crossref(new windwow)
44.
Sorption studies for Cd(II) sequestration from aqueous solution on chemically modifiedAlbizia lebbeck, Separation Science and Technology, 2016, 1  crossref(new windwow)
45.
l-lysine monohydrate mediated facile and environment friendly synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and their prospective applications as a catalyst for the reduction and photodegradation of aromatic compounds, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2016, 4, 3, 2976  crossref(new windwow)
46.
Simple and facile sonochemical synthesis of lead oxide nanoparticles loaded activated carbon and its application for methyl orange removal from aqueous phase, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 213, 48  crossref(new windwow)
47.
Photodegradation of Erythromycin antibiotic by γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposite: Response surface methodology modeling and optimization, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 214, 378  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Celik A, Demirbas A. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions via adsorption onto modified lignin from pulping wastes. Energ. Source. 2005;27:1167-1177. crossref(new window)

2.
International occupational safety and health information centre. Metals. In: Basics of chemical safety, Chapter 7. Geneva: International labour organization (ILO); 1999.

3.
Gonzalez AR, Ndung'u K, Flegal AR. Natural occurrence of hexavalent chromium in the Aromas red sands aquifer, California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005;39:5505-5511. crossref(new window)

4.
Boening DW. Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: a general review. Chemosphere 2000;40:1335-1351. crossref(new window)

5.
Hetherington LE, Brown TJ, Benham AJ, Lusty PAJ, Idoine NE. World mineral production 2001-2005. Nottingham: Nottingham British Geological Survey; 2007.

6.
Forray FL, Hallbauer DK. A study of the pollution of the Aries River (Romania) using capillary electrophoresis as analytical technique. Environ. Geol. 2000;39:1372-1384. crossref(new window)

7.
Kotas J, Stasicka Z. Chromium occurrence in the environment and methods of its speciation. Environ. Pollut. 2000;107:263-283. crossref(new window)

8.
World health organization (WHO). Copper in Drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 2004.

9.
Juttner K, Galla U, Schmieder H, Electrochemical approaches to environmental problems in the process industry. Electrochim. Acta 2000;45:2575-2594. crossref(new window)

10.
Yang XJ, Fane AG, McNaughton S. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from wastewater by supported liquid membranes. Water Sci. Technol. 2001;43:341-348.

11.
Bose P, Bose MA, Kumar S. Critical evaluation of treatment strategies involving adsorption and chelation for wastewater containing copper, zinc, and cyanide. Adv. Environ. Res. 2002;7:179-195. crossref(new window)

12.
Wingenfelder U, Hansen C, Furrer G, Schulin R. Removal of heavy metals from mine water by natural zeolites. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005;39:4606-4613. crossref(new window)

13.
Dobrevsky I, Todorova-Dimova M, Panayotova T. Electroplating rinse wastewater treatment by ion exchange. Desalination 1997;108:277-280. crossref(new window)

14.
Korngold E, Belayev N, Aronov L. Removal of chromates from drinking water by anion exchangers. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2003;33:179-187. crossref(new window)

15.
Ahmed S, Chughtai S, Keane MA. The removal of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by ion exchange with Na-Y zeolite. Sep. Purif. Technol. 1998;13:57-64. crossref(new window)

16.
Cheng RC, Liang S, Wang HC, Beuhler MD. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 1994;86: 79-90.

17.
Edwards M. Chemistry of arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 1994;86:64-78.

18.
Wang LK, Fahey EM, Wu ZC. Dissolved air flotation. In: Wang LK, Hung YT, Shammas NK, eds. Physicochemical treatment processes. New Jersey: Humana Press; 2004. p. 431-500.

19.
Matis KA, Zouboulis AI, Gallios GP, Erwe T, Blocher C. Application of flotation for the separation of metal-loaded zeolite Chemosphere 2004;55:65-72. crossref(new window)

20.
Chakravarti AK, Chowdhury SB, Chakrabarty S, Chakrabarty T, Mukherjee DC. Liquid membrane multiple emulsion process of chromium(VI) separation from wastewaters. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects. 1995;103:59-71. crossref(new window)

21.
Kongsricharoern N, Polprasert C. Chromium removal by a bipolar electrochemical precipitation process. Water Sci. Technol. 1996;34:109-116.

22.
Dabrowski A. Adsorption - from theory to practice. Adv. Colloid Int. Sci. 2001;93:135-224. crossref(new window)

23.
Volesky B. Detoxification of metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century. Hydrometallurgy 2001;59:203-216. crossref(new window)

24.
Aksu Z. Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochem. 2005;40:997-1026. crossref(new window)

25.
Stasinakis AS, Thomaidis NS. Fate and biotransformation of metal and metalloid species in biological wastewater treatment processes. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010;40:307-364. crossref(new window)

26.
Tsezos M. Biosorption of metals. The experience accumulated and the outlook for technology development. Hydrometallurgy 2001;59:241-243. crossref(new window)

27.
Ahluwalia SS, Goyal D. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2007;98:2243-2257. crossref(new window)

28.
Ahemad M, Malik A. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by zinc resistant bacteria isolated from agricultural soils irrigated with wastewater. Bacteriology J. 2011;2:12-21.

29.
Volesky, B. Biosorption and me. Water Res. 2007;41:4017-4029. crossref(new window)

30.
Volesky B, Holan ZR. Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotechnol. Prog. 1995;11:235-250. crossref(new window)

31.
Volesky B. Introduction. In: Volesky B, eds. Biosorption of heavy metals. Boca Raton: CRC press; 1990. p. 3-5.

32.
Volesky B. Removal and recovery of heavy metals by biosorption. In: Volesky B, eds. Biosorption of heavy metals. Boca Raton: CRC press; 1990. p. 8-43.

33.
Volesky B. Advances in biosorption of metals: selection of biomass types. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1994;14:291-302. crossref(new window)

34.
Ajmal M, Rao RAK, Anwar S, Ahamad J, Ahmad R. Adsorption studies on rice husk: removal and recovery of Cd(II) from wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2003;86:147-149. crossref(new window)

35.
Akhtar M, Iqbal S, Kausar A, Bhanger MI, Shaheen MA. An economically viable method for the removal of selected divalent metal ions from aqueous solutions using activated rice husk. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2010;75:149-155. crossref(new window)

36.
Ye H, Zhu Q, Du D. Adsorptive removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution using natural and modified rice husk. Bioresour. Technol. 2010;101:5175-5179. crossref(new window)

37.
Kumar U, Bandyopadhyay M. Sorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using pretreated rice husk. Bioresour. Technol. 2006;97:104-109. crossref(new window)

38.
El-Shafey EI. Sorption of Cd(II) and Se(IV) from aqueous solution using modified rice husk. J. Hazard. Mater. 2007;147: 546-555. crossref(new window)

39.
Zulkali MMD, Ahmad AL, Norulakmal NH. Oryza sativa L. husk as heavy metal adsorbent: optimization with lead as model solution. Bioresour. Technol. 2006;97:21-25. crossref(new window)

40.
Nouri L, Hamdaoui O. Ultrasonication-assisted sorption of cadmium from aqueous phase by wheat bran. J. Phys. Chem. A 2007;111:8456-8463. crossref(new window)

41.
Farooq U, Khan MA, Athar M, Kozinski JA. Effect of modification of environmentally friendly biosorbent wheat (Triticum aestivum) on the biosorptive removal of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution. Chem. Eng. J. 2011;171:400-410. crossref(new window)

42.
Verma B, Shukla NP. Removal of nickel (II) from electroplating industry by agrowaste carbons. Indian J. Environ. Health 2000;42:145-150.

43.
Nouri L, Ghodbane I, Hamdaoui O, Chiha M. Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous phase using wheat bran. J. Hazard. Mater. 2007;149:115-125. crossref(new window)

44.
Dang VBH, Doan HD, Dang-Vu T, Lohi A. Equilibrium and kinetics of biosorption of cadmium (II) and copper (II) ions by wheat straw. Bioresour. Technol. 2009;100:211-219. crossref(new window)

45.
Tan G, Xiao D. Adsorption of cadmium ion from aqueous solution by ground wheat stems. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;164:1359-1363. crossref(new window)

46.
Pino GH, Mesquita LMS, Torem ML, Pinto GASP. Biosorption of cadmium by green coconut shell powder. Miner. Eng. 2006;19:380-387. crossref(new window)

47.
Kadirvelu K, Namasivayam C. Activated carbon from coconut coirpith as metal adsorbent: Adsorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Adv. Environ. Res. 2003;7:471-478. crossref(new window)

48.
Ho YS, Ofomaja AE. Biosorption thermodynamics of cadmium on coconut copra meal as biosorbent. Biochem. Eng. J. 2006;30:117-123. crossref(new window)

49.
Sha L, Xueyi G, Ningchuan F, Qinghua T. Adsorption of $Cu^{2+}$ and $Cd^{2+}$ from aqueous solution by mercapto-acetic acid modified orange peel. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2009;73:10-14. crossref(new window)

50.
Iqbal M, Saeed A, Zafar SI. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of $Cd^{2+}$ and $Pb^{2+}$ removal by mango peel waste. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;164: 161-171. crossref(new window)

51.
Memon JR, Memon SQ, Bhanger MI, Zuhra Memon G, El-Turki A, Allen GC. Characterization of banana peel by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2008;66:260-265. crossref(new window)

52.
Anwar J, Shafique U, Waheed-uz-Zaman, Salman M, Dar A, Anwar S. Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from water by adsorption on peels of banana. Bioresour. Technol. 2010;101:1752-1755. crossref(new window)

53.
Saikaew W, Kaewsarn P, Saikaew W. Pomelo peel: agricultural waste for biosorption of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2009;56:287-291.

54.
Kahraman S, Dogan N, Erdemoglu S. Use of various agricultural wastes for the removal of heavy metal ions. Inter. J. Environ. Pollut. 2008;34:275-284. crossref(new window)

55.
Azouaou N, Sadaoui Z, Djaafri A, Mokaddem H. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;184:126-134. crossref(new window)

56.
Cay S, Uyanik A, Ozas A. Single and binary component adsorption of copper (II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions using tea-industry waste. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2004;38: 273-280. crossref(new window)

57.
Padmini E, Sridhar S. Effect of pH and contact time on the uptake of heavy metals from industrial effluents by Pongamia pinnata Bark. Asian J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Environ. Sci. 2007;9:187-190.

58.
Chen S, Yue Q, Gao B, Xu X. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using modified wheat residue. J. Coll. Interf. Sci. 2010;349:256-264. crossref(new window)

59.
Farajzadeh MA, Monji AB. Adsorption characteristic of wheat bran towards heavy metal cations. Separ. Pur. Tech. 2004;38: 197-207. crossref(new window)

60.
Singh KK, Hasan HS, Talat M, Singh VK, Gangwar SK. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using wheat bran. Chem. Eng. J. 2009;151:113-121. crossref(new window)

61.
Wang XS, Chen LF, Li FY, Chen KL, Wan WY, Tang YJ. Removal of Cr (VI) with wheat-residue derived black carbon: Reaction mechanism and adsorption performance. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;175:816-822. crossref(new window)

62.
Memon JR, Memon SQ, Bhanger MI, El-Turki, A, Hallam KR, Allen GC. Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for the selective removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2009;70:232-237. crossref(new window)

63.
Babel S, Kurniawan TA. Cr(VI) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/or chitosan. Chemosphere 2004;54:951-967. crossref(new window)

64.
Anandkumar J, Mandal B. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos correa) shell as an adsorbent. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;168:633-640. crossref(new window)

65.
Dubey SP, Gopal K. Adsorption of chromium (VI) on low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural waste material: a comparative study. J. Hazard. Mater. 2007;145:465-470. crossref(new window)

66.
Pehlivan E, Altun T. Biosorption of chromium (VI) ion from aqueous solutions using walnut, hazelnut and almond shell. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008;155:378-384. crossref(new window)

67.
Sarin V, Pant KK. Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark. Bioresour. Technol. 2006;97:15-20. crossref(new window)

68.
Basci N, Kocadagistan E, Kocadagistan B. Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by wheat shell. Desalination 2004;164:135-140. crossref(new window)

69.
Wang XS, Li ZZ, Sun C. A comparative study of removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by locally low-cost materials: marine macroalgae and agricultural by-products. Desalination 2009;235:146-159. crossref(new window)

70.
Dupont L, Bouanda J, Dumonceau J, Aplincourt M. Biosorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto a lignocellulosic substrate extracted from wheat bran. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2005;2:165-168. crossref(new window)

71.
Aydin H, Bulut Y, Yerlikaya C. Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto low-cost adsorbents. J. Environ. Manag. 2008;87:37-45. crossref(new window)

72.
Ozer A, Ozer D, Ozer A.The adsorption of copper (II) ions on to dehydrate wheat bran (DWB): determination of the equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters. Process Biochem. 2004;39:2183-2191. crossref(new window)

73.
Quek SY, Wase DAJ, Forster CF. The use of sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper. Water Sa. 1998;24:251-256.

74.
Wong KK, Lee CK, Low KS, Haron MJ. Removal of Cu and Pb by tartaric acid modified rice husk from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 2003;50:23-28. crossref(new window)

75.
Moreno-Pirajan JC, Giraldo L. Activated carbon obtained by pyrolysis of potato peel for the removal of heavy metal copper (II) from aqueous solutions. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 2011;90:42-47. crossref(new window)

76.
Iqbal M, Saeed A, Kalim I. Characterization of adsorptive capacity and investigation of mechanism of $Cu^{2+}$, $Ni^{2+}$ and $Zn^{2+}$ adsorption on mango peel waste from constituted metal solution and genuine electroplating effluent. Sep. Sci. Technol. 2009;44:3770-3791. crossref(new window)

77.
Zhu CS, Wang LP, Chen W. Removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution by agricultural by-product: peanut hull. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;168:739-746. crossref(new window)

78.
Johnson PD, Watson MA, Brown J, Jefcoat IA. Peanut hull pellets as a single use sorbent for the capture of Cu(II) from wastewater. Waste Manag. 2002;22:471-480. crossref(new window)

79.
Mohammad M, Maitra S, Ahmad N, Bustam A, Sen TK, Dutta BK. Metal ion removalfrom aqueous solution using physic seed hull. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;179:363-372. crossref(new window)

80.
Yao ZY, Qi JH, Wang LH. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;174:137-143. crossref(new window)

81.
Vazquez G, Calvo M, Freire MS, Gonzalez-Alvarez J, Antorrena G. Chestnut shell as heavy metal adsorbent: optimization study of lead, copper and zinc cations removal. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;172:1402-1414. crossref(new window)

82.
Mohan S, Sumitha K. Removal of Cu (II) by Adsorption Using Casuarina Equisetifolia Bark. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2008;25:497-506. crossref(new window)

83.
Oo CW, Kassim MJ, Pizzi A. Characterization and performance of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove polyflavonoid tannins in the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II). Ind. Crops Prod. 2009;30:152-161. crossref(new window)

84.
Amarasinghe BMWPK, Williams RA. Tea waste as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu and Pb from wastewater. Chem. Eng. J. 2007;132:299-309. crossref(new window)

85.
Parab H, Joshi S, Shenoy N, Lali A, Sarma US, Sudersanan M. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Co(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) onto coir pith. Process Biochem. 2006;41:609-615. crossref(new window)

86.
Bhatnagar A, Minocha AK, Sillanpaa M. Adsorptive removal of cobalt from aqueous solution by utilizing lemon peel as biosorbent. Biochem. Eng. J. 2010;48:181-186. crossref(new window)

87.
El-Shafey EI. Removal of Zn(II) and Hg(II) from aqueous solution on a carbonaceous sorbent chemically prepared from rice husk. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;175:319-327. crossref(new window)

88.
Zabihi M, Ahmadpour A, Asl AH. Removal of mercury from water by carbonaceous sorbents derived from walnut shell. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;167:230-236. crossref(new window)

89.
Anirudhan TS, Divya L, Ramachandran M. Mercury (II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008;157:620-626. crossref(new window)

90.
Naiya TK, Bhattacharya AK, Mandal S, DasSK. The sorption of lead(II) ions on rice husk ash. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;163: 1254-1264. crossref(new window)

91.
Bulut Y, Baysal Z. Removal of Pb(II) from wastewater using wheat bran. J. Environ. Manage. 2006;78:107-113. crossref(new window)

92.
Kadirvelu K, Namasivayam C. Agricultural by-product as metal adsorbent: Sorption of lead(II) from aqueous solution onto coirpith carbon. Environ. Technol. 2000;21:1091-1097. crossref(new window)

93.
Zuorro A, Lavecchia R. Adsorption of Pb(II) on spent leaves of green and black tea. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 2010;7:153-159. crossref(new window)

94.
Boudrahem F, Aissani-Benissad F, Ait-Amar H. Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride. J. Environ. Manag. 2009;90:3031-3039. crossref(new window)

95.
Reddy DHK, Seshaiah K, Reddy AVR., Rao MM, Wang MC. Biosorption of $Pb^{2+}$ from aqueous solutions by Moringa oleifera bark: equilibrium and kinetic studies. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;174:831-838. crossref(new window)

96.
Sekhar MC. Removal of lead from aqueous effluents by adsorption on coconut shell carbon. J. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2008;50: 137-140.

97.
Pehlivan E, Altun T, Cetin S, Bhanger MI. Lead sorption by waste biomass of hazelnut and almond shell. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;167:1203-1208. crossref(new window)

98.
Subbaiah MV, Vijaya Y, Kumar NS, Reddy AS, Krishnaiah A. Biosorption of nickel from aqueous solutions by Acacia leucocephala bark: Kinetics and equilibrium studies. Colloids and Surf. B Biointerfaces 2009;74:260-265. crossref(new window)

99.
Ajmal M, Rao RAK, Ahmad R, Ahmad J. Adsorption studies on Citrus reticulate (fruit peel of orange): removal and recovery of Ni(II) from electroplating wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater. 2000;79:117-131. crossref(new window)