Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Manganese treatment to reduce black water occurrence in the water supply
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 20, Issue 3,  2015, pp.230-236
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.003
 Title & Authors
Manganese treatment to reduce black water occurrence in the water supply
Kim, Jinkeun;
  PDF(new window)
26 multi-regional water treatment plants (WTPs) were investigated, to determine the characteristics of manganese (Mn) concentration and removal in Korea. Mn concentrations of raw water in most WTPs were higher than the drinking water standard (i.e., 0.05 mg/L); thus, proper removal of Mn at the WTPs is needed. Mn concentration was generally higher in lakes than rivers due to seasonal lake turnovers. The Mn concentrations of treated water at 26 WTPs in 2012 were less than 0.05 mg/L, due to strict law enforcement and water treatment processes optimization. However, before 2010, those concentrations were more than 0.05 mg/L, which could have led to an accumulation of Mn oxides in the distribution system. This could be one of the main reasons for black water occurrence. Therefore, regular monitoring of Mn concentration in the distribution system, flushing, and proper Mn removal at WTPs are needed, to supply clean and palatable tap water.
Black water;Granular media filtration;Manganese removal;MOCM (manganese oxide coated media);Water treatment;
 Cited by
Korea Ministry of Environment [Internet] c2015. [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from:

Griffin AE. Significance and removal of manganese in water supplies. J. Am. Water Works Ass. 1960;52:1326-1334. crossref(new window)

Cerrato JM, Falkinham JO, Dietrich AM, Knocke WR, McKinney CW, Pruden A. Manganese-oxidizing and -reducing microorganisms isolated from biofilms in chlorinated drinking water systems. Water Res. 2010;44:3935-3945. crossref(new window)

Carlson KH, Knocke WR. Modeling manganese oxidation with $KMnO_4$ for drinking water treatment. J. Environ. Eng-Asce. 1999;125:892-896. crossref(new window)

Sommerfeld EO. Iron and manganese removal handbook. Denver: American Water Works Association; 1999. p. 13-19.

Crittenden JC, Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm). MWH's water treatment: principles and design. 3rd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.

USEPA. [Internet] c2015. [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from:

Funes A, de Vicente J, Cruz-Pizarro L, de Vicente I. The influence of pH on manganese removal by magnetic microparticles in solution. Water Res. 2014;53:110-122. crossref(new window)

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan [Internet]. c2015. Available from:

WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 4th ed. Geneva: WHO Publications Center USA; 2011. p. 226.

Sly LI, Hodgkinson MC, Arunpairojana V. Deposition of manganese in a drinking water distribution system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1990;56:628-639.

Williams RB, Culp GL. Handbook of public water systems. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1986. p. 633-640.

Aziz HA, Smith PG. The Influence of Ph and Coarse Media on Manganese Precipitation from Water. Water Res. 1992;26:853-855. crossref(new window)

Gouzinis A, Kosmidis N, Vayenas DV, Lyberatos G. Removal of Mn and simultaneous removal of NH3, Fe and Mn from potable water using a trickling filter. Water Res. 1998;32:2442-2450. crossref(new window)

Doula MK. Removal of Mn2+ ions from drinking water by using Clinoptilolite and a Clinoptilolite-Fe oxide system. Water Res. 2006;40:3167-3176. crossref(new window)

Hargette AC, Knocke WR. Assessment of fate of manganese in oxide-coated filtration systems. J. Environ. Eng-Asce. 2001;127:1132-1138. crossref(new window)

Han RP, Zou WH, Zhang ZP, Shi J, Yang JJ. Removal of copper(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solution by manganese oxide coated sand - I. Characterization and kinetic study. J. Hazard. Mater. 2006;137:384-395. crossref(new window)

Bajpai S, Chaudhuri M. Removal of arsenic from ground water by manganese dioxide-coated sand. J. Environ. Eng-Asce. 1999;125:782-784. crossref(new window)

Knocke WR, Occiano SC, Hungate R. Removal of soluble manganese by oxide-coated filter media: sorption rate and removal mechanism issues. J. Am. Water Works. Ass. 1991:64-69.

Singer. PC, Reckhow. DA. Chemical Oxidation. In: Edzwald. JK, eds. Water Quality and Treatment: A handbook on drinking water. Denver: American Water Works Association, McGraw- Hill; 2011.

Kim J, Jung S, Kim J, Park S. Manganese removal in water treatment. Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater 2005;19:595-604.

Knocke WR, Ramon JR, Thompson CP. Soluble manganese removal on oxide-coated filter media. J. Am. Water Works. Ass. 1988;80:65-70.

Kawamura S. Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2000.

Korea Water Works Association (KWWA) Waterworks Facilities Standards. 2010. p. 384-385.