Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.003
Title & Authors
Manganese treatment to reduce black water occurrence in the water supply Kim, Jinkeun;
26 multi-regional water treatment plants (WTPs) were investigated, to determine the characteristics of manganese (Mn) concentration and removal in Korea. Mn concentrations of raw water in most WTPs were higher than the drinking water standard (i.e., 0.05 mg/L); thus, proper removal of Mn at the WTPs is needed. Mn concentration was generally higher in lakes than rivers due to seasonal lake turnovers. The Mn concentrations of treated water at 26 WTPs in 2012 were less than 0.05 mg/L, due to strict law enforcement and water treatment processes optimization. However, before 2010, those concentrations were more than 0.05 mg/L, which could have led to an accumulation of Mn oxides in the distribution system. This could be one of the main reasons for black water occurrence. Therefore, regular monitoring of Mn concentration in the distribution system, flushing, and proper Mn removal at WTPs are needed, to supply clean and palatable tap water.
Black water;Granular media filtration;Manganese removal;MOCM (manganese oxide coated media);Water treatment;
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