Publisher : The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
DOI : 10.5657/FAS.2015.0265
Title & Authors
Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels for Growth of Juvenile Israeli Carp Cyprinus carpio Aminikhoei, Zahra; Choi, Jin; Lee, Sang-Min;
A feeding trial of four dietary protein levels (20, 30, 40, and 50%) and two lipid levels (7 and 14%) with a factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile Israeli carp Cyprinus carpio. Triplicate groups of fish (average body weight, ) were fed the experimental diets for 9 weeks. Survival of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Weight gain and feed efficiency increased as dietary protein levels increased up to 40 and 50%, respectively. Weight gain was higher in fish fed the high-lipid diets with 20 and 40% protein content. Feeding efficiency increased as the dietary lipid level increased for the 30, 40, and 50% protein diets. Daily feed intake decreased with increasing protein level and the minimum feed consumption was observed in fish fed the 50% protein diet with 14% lipid content. Moisture and lipid contents of the whole body were affected by both dietary protein and lipid levels. The crude lipid content of fish fed the 14% lipid diet was higher than that of fish fed the 7% lipid diet at each protein level. The results of this study indicate that a diet containing 40% protein with 14% lipid content is optimal for the growth and effective protein utilization of juvenile Israeli carp.
Ali MZ and Jauncey K. 2005. Approaches to optimizing dietary protein to energy ratio for African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Aquac Nutr 11, 95-101.
Arzel J, Metailler R, Kerleguer C, Delliou HL and Guillaume J. 1995. The protein requirement of brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry. Aquaculture 130, 67-78.
Bakos J and Gorda S. 1995. Genetic improvement of common carp strains using intraspecific hybridization. Aquaculture 129, 183-186.
Biswas BK, Ji SC, Biswas AK, Seoka M, Kim YS, Kawasaki K and Takii K. 2009. Dietary protein and lipid requirements for the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis juvenile. Aquaculture 288, 114-119.
Daniels WH and Robinson EH. 1986. Protein and energy requirements of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture 53, 243-252.
Debnath D, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Yengkokpam S, Baruah K, Choudhury D and Venkateshwarlu G. 2007. Digestive enzymes and metabolic profile of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed diets with different crude protein levels. Comp Biochem Physiol 146B, 107-114.
Du ZY, Liu YJ, Tian LX, Wang JT, Wang Y and Liang GY. 2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquac Nutr 11, 139-146.
Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11, 1-42.
Elangovan A and Shim KF, 1997. Growth response of juvenile Barbodes altus fed isocaloric diets with variable protein levels. Aquaculture 158, 321-329.
FAO. 2010. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Folch J, Lees M and Sloane-Stanley GH. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497-509.
Guerreiro I, Peres H, Castro-Cunha M and Oliva-Teles A. 2012. Effect of temperature and dietary protein/lipid ratio on growth performance and nutrient utilization of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquac Nutr 18, 98-106.
Harpaz S, Sklan D, Karplus I, Barki A and Noy Y. 1999. Evaluation of juvenile silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell) nutritional needs using high and low protein diets at two feeding levels. Aquac Res 30, 603-610.
Hulata G. 1995. A review of genetic improvement of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection. Aquaculture 129, 143-155.
Islam MS and Tanaka M. 2004. Optimization of dietary protein requirement for pond-reared mahseer, Tor putitora Hamilton (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Aquac Res 35, 1270-1276.
Jobling M and Wandsvik A. 1983. An investigation of factors controlling food intake in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L. J Fish Biol 23, 397-404.
Keembiyehetty CN and Wilson RP. 1998. Effects of water temperature on growth and nutrient utilization of sunshine bass (Morone chrysops $\times$ Morone saxatilis) fed diets containing different energy / protein ratios. Aquaculture 166, 151-162.
Lee DJ and Putnam GB. 1973. The response of rainbow trout to varying protein/energy ratios in a test diet. J Nutr 103, 916-922.
Lee SM, Jeon IG and Lee JY. 2002. Effects of digestible protein and lipid levels in practical diets on growth, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Aquaculture 211, 227-239.
Lie O, Lied E and Lambertsen G. 1988. Feed optimization in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): fat versus protein content in the feed. Aquaculture 69, 333-341.
Liu Y, Feng L, Jiang J, Liu Y and Zhou X. 2009. Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance, digestive capacity and amino acid metabolism of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio. Var. Jian). Aquac Res 40, 1073-1082.
Mohanta KN, Mohanty SN, Jena J and Sahu NP. 2009. A dietary energy level of 14.6 MJ kg-1 and protein-to-energy ratio of 20.2 g MJ-1 results in best growth performance and nutrient accretion in silver barb Puntius gonionotus fingerlings. Aquac Nutr 15, 627-637.
Mohanty SN, Swamy DN and Tripathi SD. 1990. Protein utilization in Indian major carp fry Catla catla (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) fed four protein diets. J Aquac Trop 5, 173-179.
NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Ng WK, Soon SC and Hashim R. 2001. The dietary protein requirement of a bagrid catfish, Mystus nemurus (Cuvier & Valenciennes), determined using semipurified diets of varying protein level. Aquac Nutr 7, 45-51.
Page JW and Andrews JW. 1973. Interactions of dietary levels of protein and energy on channel catfish (lctalurus punctatus). J Nutr 103, 1339-1346.
Torstensen BE, Lie O and Hamre K. 2001. A factorial experimental design for investigation of effects of dietary lipid content and proand antioxidants on lipid composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tissues and lipoproteins. Aquac Nutr 7, 265-276.
Yang SD, Liou CH and Liu FG. 2002. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance, carcass composition and ammonia excretion in juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Aquaculture 213, 363-372.
Yoon JM. 2001. Genetic similarity and difference between common carp and Israeli carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on random amplified polymorphic DNAs analyses. Kor J Biol Sci 5, 333-339.
Yuan YC, Gong SY, Luo Z, Yang HJ, Zhang GB and Chu JZ. 2009. Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Aquac Nutr 16, 205-212.