Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Electrooxidation of Zolpidem and its Voltammetric Quantification in Standard and Pharmaceutical Formulation using Pencil Graphite Electrode
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Electrooxidation of Zolpidem and its Voltammetric Quantification in Standard and Pharmaceutical Formulation using Pencil Graphite Electrode
Naeemy, A.; Sedighi, E.; Mohammadi, A.;
  PDF(new window)
In this study a new, simple, precise, accurate and economic electrochemical method was developed and validated for the voltammetric determination of zolpidem (ZP) using disposable pencil graphite (PG) electrode. The anodic oxidation of ZP on the surface of the PG electrode was examined in a britton robinson (BR) buffer. Square wave and cyclic voltammetry were used as electrochemical techniques in the potential range of 0-1.2 V in the pH 8 BR buffer. In cyclic voltammetry studies, the diffusion coefficient of ZP oxidation was found to be 3.6×10-6 cm2 s-1. On the other hand, the ZP has shown a well-defined irreversible anodic peak at 0.98 V in the square wave voltammetry mode. The PG electrode, primarily being graphite which has a large active surface area gives rise to increasing peak current with respect to ZP electrooxidation. PG electrode showed an electrocatalytic effect in anodic oxidation of ZP. A linear relationship between catalytic current response and ZP concentration was obtained over a concentration range of 10-30 μM with R.S.D. values ranging from 0.29-3.89. Limits of detection and quantitation were found to be 1 and 3 μM, respectively. Finally, the PG electrode was successfully used to determine ZP in standard and tablet dosage forms with a mean recovery of 100.69 %.
Pencil graphite electrode;zolpidem;square wave voltammetry;pharmaceutical formulation;
 Cited by
M. J. O'Neil, The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 2013: RSC Publishing.

A. Brayfield, Martindale: the complete drug reference. 38 ed. 2014, USA: Pharmaceutical Press.

A. C. Moffat, M. D. Osselton and B. Widdop, Clarke's analysis of drugs and poisons. Vol. 3. 2011: Pharmaceutical press London.

H. D. Langtry and P. Benfield, Zolpidem. Drugs, 1990. 40(2): p. 291-313. crossref(new window)

T. Keller, A. Schneider and E. Tutsch-Bauer, Forensic Sci. Int., 106(2), 103 (1999). crossref(new window)

M. P. Mahajan and S. D. Sawant, Int. J. ChemTech Res, 4(1), 403 (2012).

R. Chomwal, A. Kumar and A. Goyal, J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2(4), 365 (2010). crossref(new window)

K. S. Patil, Y. V. Pore and S. B. Bhise, J. Pharm. Sci & Res., 2(1), 1 (2010).

K. M. Kelani, J. AOAC Int., 87(6), 1309 (2004).

I. De Clerck and P. Daenens, Analyst, 122(10), 1119 (1997). crossref(new window)

L. Laviana, C. Mangas, F. Fernández-Maríb, M. Bayodb and D. Blanco, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 36(4), 925 (2004). crossref(new window)

M. P. Maharajan and S. Sawant, J. Pharm. Res., 4(10), 3789 (2011).

S. Yaripour, S. N. Rashid, H. Alibakhshi and A. Mohammadi, Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 70(6), 738 (2015). crossref(new window)

E. Konoz, A. H. Mohsen Sarrafi, R. Abdolahnejad and M. Bahrami-Zonoz, J. Chem., 2013 (2012).

F. Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, S. Shahrokhian, A. Mohammadi and R. Dinarvand, J. Electroanal. Chem., 638(2), 212 (2010). crossref(new window)

A. Mohammadi, A. B. Moghaddam, E. Alikhani, K. Eilkhanizadeh and S. Mozaffari, IET Micro & Nano Letters, 8(12), 853 (2013). crossref(new window)

A. Babaei, B. Khalilzadeh and M. Afrasiabi, J. Appl. Electrochem., 40(8), 1537 (2010). crossref(new window)

A. Mohammadi, A. B. Moghaddam, K. Eilkhanizadeh, E. Alikhani, S. Mozaffari and T. Yavari, IET Micro & Nano Letters, 8(8), 413 (2013). crossref(new window)

A. Naeemy, A. Mohammadi, H. Bakhtiari and N. Ashouri and R. B. Walker, IET Micro & Nano Letters, 9(10), 691 (2014). crossref(new window)

A. Mohammadi, A. B. Moghaddam, R. Dinarvand and S. Rezaei-Zarchi, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 4, 895 (2009).

S.-H. Jung, Y.-K. Lee, and Y.-K. Son, J. Electrochem. Sci. Tech., 2(2), 124 (2011). crossref(new window)

M. D. Rahman, L. Mahbubur, J. Xiao-Bo, Y.-D. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S. J. Lee and J.-J. Lee, J. Electrochem. Sci. Tech., 3(2), 90 (2012). crossref(new window)

A.-E. Radi, G. Bekhiet and T. Wahdan, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 52(9), 1063 (2004). crossref(new window)

W. Gao, J. Song and N. Wu, J. Electroanal. Chem., 576(1), 1 (2005). crossref(new window)

D. Demetriades, A. Economou and A. Voulgaropoulos, Anal. Chim. Acta, 519(2), 167 (2004). crossref(new window)

H. Karadeniz, B. Gulmez, F. Sahinci, A. Erdem, G. I. Kaya, N. Unver, B. Kivcak and M. Ozsoz, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 33(2), 295 (2003). crossref(new window)

A. M. Bond, P. J. Mahon, J. Schiewe and V. Vicente-Beckett, Anal. Chim. Acta, 345(1), 67 (1997). crossref(new window)

M. Muti, K. Gençdağ, F. M. Nacak and A. Aslan, Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 106, 181 (2013). crossref(new window)

S. Buratti, M. Scampicchio, G. Giovanelli and S. Mannino, Talanta, 75(1), 312 (2008). crossref(new window)

Guideline, I. H. T., Validation of analytical procedures: text and methodology. Q2 (R1), 1 (2005).

H. T. S. Britton, and R. A. Robinson, CXCVIII.-Universal buffer solutions and the dissociation constant of veronal. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 1456 (1931).

F. Khorsand, S. Riahi, S. E. Fard, S. Kashanian, A. Naeemy1, Bagher Larijani and K. Omidfar, IET Nanobiotechnology, 7(1), 1 (2013). crossref(new window)

T. Golub and J. Y. Becker, Org. Biomol. Chem., 10(19), 3906 (2012). crossref(new window)

T. Golub and J. Y. Becker, J. Electrochem. Soc., 160(7), G3123 (2013). crossref(new window)

N. L. Weinberg and E. A. Brown, J. Org. Chem., 31(12), 4058 (1966). crossref(new window)

J. D. Coyle, Pure Appl. Chem., 60(7), 941 (1988).

J. B. Allen and R. F. Larry, Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications. New York, United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2001).

P. M. Monk, Fundamentals of electro-analytical chemistry, Vol. 29. John Wiley & Sons (2008).

E. Laviron, J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem., 101(1), 19 (1979). crossref(new window)

A. B. Moghaddam, A. Mohammadi and S. Mohammadi, Pharm. Anal. Acta, 3(6), 1 (2012).

J. C. Miller and J. N. Miller, Statistics for analytical chemistry., New York, United States: John Wiley and Sons. (1988).

United States Pharmacopoeia 38. Rockville, USA: The United States Pharmacopoeia Convention (2015).