Identification of Leonurus sibiricus as a Weed Reservoir for Three Pepper-Infecting Viruses Kwon, Sun-Jung; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo;
In plant virus ecology, weeds are regarded as wild reservoirs of viruses and as potential sources for insect-mediated transmission of viruses. During field surveys in 2013-2014, three Leonurus sibiricus plants showing virus-like symptoms were collected from pepper fields in Daegu, Seosan, and Danyang in Korea. Molecular diagnosis assays showed that the collected L. sibiricus samples were infected with either Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), or Beet western yellow virus (BWYV), respectively. Since this is the first identification of TSWV, PMMoV, and BWYV from L. sibiricus, complete genome sequences of three virus isolates were determined to examine their phylogenetic relationships with the previously reported strains and isolates. Phylogenetic analyses performed using full genome sequences of the viruses showed the isolates of TSWV and PMMoV obtained from L. sibiricus are closely related to the pepper isolates of the corresponding viruses. Our results suggest that L. sibiricus could act an alternative host and reservoir of viruses that cause damages in pepper fields.
Barbosa, J. C., Eckstein, B., Bergamin, A., Rezende, J. A. M. and Dallagnol, L. J. 2013. First Report of Tomato yellow spot virus Infecting Leonurus sibiricus in Brazil. Plant Dis. 97:289- 289.
Choi, G., Kim, J., Lee, D., Kim, J. and Ryu, K. 2005. Occurrence and Distribution of Viruses Infecting Pepper in Korea. Plant Pathol. J. 21:258-261.
Gilbert, G. S. 2002. Evolutionary ecology of plant diseases in natural ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 40:13-43.
Green, S. K. and Kim, J.-S. 1991. Characteristics and control of viruses infecting peppers: a literature review. Technical Bulletin 18:60.
Hobbs, H. A., Eastburn, D. M., D'Arcy, C. J., Kindhart, J. D., Masiunas, J. B., Voegtlin, D. J., Weinzierl, R. A. and McCoppin, N. K. 2000. Solanaceous weeds as possible sources of Cucumber mosaic virus in southern Illinois for aphid transmission to pepper. Plant Dis. 84:1221-1224.
Kim, J., Choi, G., Kim, J. and Choi, J. 2004. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus from Paprika in Korea. Plant Pathol. J. 20:297-301.
Kim, J., Lee, S., Choi, H., Kim, M., Kwak, H., Kim, J., Nam, M., Cho, J., Cho, I. and Choi, G. 2012. 2007-2011 Characteristics of plant virus infections on crop samples submitted from agricultural places. Res. Plant Dis. 18:277-289.
Kim, J., Lee, S., Choi, H., Kim, M., Kwak, H., Nam, M., Kim, J., Choi, G., Cho, J., Cho, I. and Chung, B. 2011. Occurrence of Virus Diseases on Major Crops in 2010. Res. Plant Dis. 17:334-341.
Kwon, S. J., Tan, S. H. and Vidalakis, G. 2014. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of an endornavirus from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) in California, U.S.A. Virus Genes 49:163-168.
Lee, J. S., Cho, W. K., Kim, M. K., Kwak, H. R., Choi, H. S. and Kim, K. H. 2011. Complete genome sequences of three tomato spotted wilt virus isolates from tomato and pepper plants in Korea and their phylogenetic relationship to other TSWV isolates. Arch. Virol. 156:725-728.
Lee, Y. J., Kwak, H. R., Lee, Y. K., Kim, M. K., Choi, H. S. and Seo, J. K. 2015. Complete genome sequence of yacon necrotic mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Badnavirus. Arch. Virol. 160:1139-1142.
Schelhorn, S. E., Fischer, M., Tolosi, L., Altmuller, J., Nurnberg, P., Pfister, H., Lengauer, T. and Berthold, F. 2013. Sensitive detection of viral transcripts in human tumor transcriptomes. PLoS Comput. Biol. 9:e1003228.
Seo, J. K., Kang, M., Kwak, H. R., Kim, M. K., Kim, C. S., Lee, S. H., Kim, J. S. and Choi, H. S. 2015. Complete genome sequence of motherwort yellow mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Torradovirus. Arch. Virol. 160:587-590.
Seo, J. K., Shin, O. J., Kwak, H. R., Kim, M. K., Choi, H. S., Lee, S. H. and Kim, J. S. 2014. First Report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 in Leonurus sibiricus in Korea. Plant Dis. 98.
Yoon, J. Y., Hong, J. S., Kim, M. J., Ha, J. H., Choi, G. S., Choi, J. K. and Ryu, K. H. 2005. Molecular characterization and infectious cDNA clone of a Korean isolate of pepper mild mottle virus from pepper. Plant Pathol. J. 21:361-368.