JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
An Algorithm for Calculating the RMS Value of the Non-Sinusoidal Current Used in AC Resistance Spot Welding
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Journal of Power Electronics
  • Volume 15, Issue 4,  2015, pp.1139-1147
  • Publisher : The Korean Institute of Power Electronics
  • DOI : 10.6113/JPE.2015.15.4.1139
 Title & Authors
An Algorithm for Calculating the RMS Value of the Non-Sinusoidal Current Used in AC Resistance Spot Welding
Zhou, Kang; Cai, Lilong;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
In this paper, an algorithm based on a model analysis of the online calculation of the root-mean-square (RMS) value of welding current for single-phase AC resistance spot welding (RSW) was developed. The current is highly nonlinear and typically non-sinusoidal, which makes the measuring and controlling actions difficult. Though some previous methods focused on this issue, they were so complex that they could not be effectively used in general cases. The electrical model of a single-phase AC RSW was analyzed, and then an algorithm for online calculation of the RMS value of the welding current was presented. The description includes two parts, a model-dependent part and a model-independent part. Using a previous work about online measurement of the power factor angle, the first part can be solved. For the second part, although the solution of the governing equation can be directly obtained, a lot of CPU time must be consumed due to the fact that it involves a lot of complex calculations. Therefore, a neural network was employed to simplify the calculations. Finally, experimental results and a corresponding analysis showed that the proposed algorithm can obtain the RMS values with a high precision while consuming less time when compared to directly solving the equations.
 Keywords
Model-independent;Neural network;Nonlinear;RMS value;Single-phase AC RSW;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Y. Ma, P. Wu, C. Xuan, Y. Zhang, and H. Su, “Review on Techniques for On-Line Monitoring of Resistance Spot Welding Process,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2013, pp. 1-6, 2013.

2.
G. Hwang, P. Podrzaj, and H. Hashimoto, “Note: Resistance spot welding using a microgripper,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 84, No. 106105, pp. 106105-1-3, 2013. crossref(new window)

3.
W. Li, D. Cerjanec, and G. A. Grzadzinski, “A Comparative Study of Single-Phase AC and Multiphase DC Resistance Spot Welding,” Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 8, pp. 583-589, Aug. 2005. crossref(new window)

4.
B. M. Brown, “A comparison of AC and DC current in the resistance spot welding of automotive steels,” Welding Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 18-23, Jan.1987.

5.
M. El-Banna, D. Files, and R. B. Chinnam, “Online qualitative nugget classification by using a linear vector quantization neural network for resistance spot welding,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., No. 36, pp. 237-248, Mar. 2008. crossref(new window)

6.
A. V. Dennison, D. J. Toncich, and S. Masood, “Control and process-based optimisation of spot-welding in manufacturing systems,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 256-263, 1997. crossref(new window)

7.
A. E. Ouafi, R. Belanger, and M. Guillot, “Dynamic resistance based model for on-line resistance spot welding quality assessment,” Materials Science Forum Vols, Vol. 706-709, pp. 2925-2930, 2012. crossref(new window)

8.
D. W. Dickinson, J. E. Franklin, and A. Stanya, “Characterization of Spot Welding Behavior by Dynamic Electrical Parameter Monitoring,” Welding Journal, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 170s-176s, Jun.1980.

9.
P. Podrzˇaj, I. Polajnar, J. Diaci, and Z. Kariz, “Overview of resistance spot welding control,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 215-224, Apr.2008. crossref(new window)

10.
T. L. Baldwin, J. Timothy Hogans, S. D. Henry, J. Frank Renovich, and P. T. Latkovic, “Reactive-power compensation for voltage control at resistance welders,” IEEE Trans. Ind Appl., Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 1485-1492, Nov./Dec. 2005. crossref(new window)

11.
K. Zhou and L. Cai, “A nonlinear current control method for resistance spot welding,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 559-569, Apr. 2014. crossref(new window)

12.
T. C. Manjunath, S. Janardhanan, and N. S. Kubal, "Simulation, design, implementation and control of a welding process using micro - Controller," in 2004 5th Asian Control Conference, pp. 828-836, 2004.

13.
P. Podrzaj, I. Polajnar, J. Diaci, and Z. Kariz, “Influence of welding current shape on expulsion and weld strength of resistance spot welds,” Science & Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 250-254, 2006. crossref(new window)

14.
S. Gao, L. Budde, and L. Wu, "Investigation of the effective welding current in spot welding," in Proc. of the 1993 ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Production Engineering Division, pp. 965-970, 1993.

15.
P. Fang and L. Xiong, “Studied of the calculating method of the current's virtual value during the resistance spot welding process used ann in real time,” Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 11, pp. 148-152, 2004. (in Chinese) crossref(new window)

16.
L. Gong, C.-L. Liu, and L. Guo, "Residual adaptive algorithm applied in intelligent real-time calculation of current RMS value during resistance spot welding," in Neural Networks and Brain, 2005. ICNN&B '05. International Conference on 2005, pp. 1800-1806, 2005.

17.
K. Zhou and L. Cai, “Online measuring power factor in AC resistance spot welding,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 575-582, Jan. 2014. crossref(new window)

18.
S. K. Datta, Power Electronics and Controls: Reston, Va.: Reston, 1985.

19.
L. Gong, C.-L. Liu, and X. F. Zha, “Model-based real-time dynamic power factor measurement in AC resistance spot,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 1442-1448, Jun. 2007. crossref(new window)

20.
X. Lai, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and G. Chen, “Weld quality inspection based on online measured indentation from servo encoder in resistance spot welding,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 1501-1505, Aug, 2007. crossref(new window)

21.
Y. S. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, X. M. Lai, and G. L. Chen, “Online quality inspection of resistance spot welded joint based on electrode indentation using servo gun,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 449-454, 2007. crossref(new window)

22.
Y. Zhang, G. Chen, and Z. Lin, "Study on weld quality control of resistance spot welding using a neuro-fuzzy algorithm," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3215/2004, pp. 544-550, 2004.

23.
Y. Cho and S. Rhee, “New technology for measuring dynamic resistance and estimating strength in resistance spot welding,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 1173-1178, Aug. 2000. crossref(new window)

24.
Y. Cho and S. Rhee, “Quality estimation of resistance spot welding by using pattern recognition with neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 330-334, Apr. 2004. crossref(new window)

25.
K. Zhou and L. Cai, “Study of safety operation of AC resistance spot welding system,” IET Power Electron., Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 141-147, Jan. 2014. crossref(new window)

26.
K. Zhou and L. Cai, “On the development of nugget growth model for resistance spot welding,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, pp. 164901.1-12, 2014.