Publisher : The Korean Institute of Power Electronics
DOI : 10.6113/JPE.2016.16.4.1469
Title & Authors
A Modularized Equalizer for Supercapacitor Strings in Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Gao, Zhigang; Jiang, Fenlin;
In hybrid energy storage systems, supercapacitors are usually connected in series to meet the required voltage levels. Equalizers are effective in prolonging the life of hybrid energy storage systems because they eliminate the voltage imbalance on cells. This study proposes a modularized equalizer, which is based on a combination of a half-bridge inverter, an inductor, and two auxiliary capacitors. The proposed equalizer inherits the advantages of inductor-based equalization systems, but it also offers unique merits, such as low switching losses and an easy-to-use control algorithm. The zero-voltage switching scheme is analyzed, and the power model is established. A fixed-frequency operation strategy is proposed to simplify the control and lower the cost. The switching patterns and conditions for zero-voltage switching are discussed. Simulation results based on PSIM are presented to verify the validity of the proposed equalizer. An equalization test for two supercapacitor cells is performed. An experimental hybrid energy storage system, which consists of batteries and supercapacitors, is established to verify the performance of the proposed equalizer. The analysis, simulation results, and experimental results are in good agreement, thus indicating that the circuit is practical.
W. G. Hurley, Y. S. Wong, and W. H. Wolfle, “Self-equalization of cell voltages to prolong the life of VRLA batteries in standby applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 2115-2120, Jun. 2009.
L. Maharjan, S. Inoue, H. Akagi, and J. Askura, “State-of-charge (SOC)-balancing control of a battery energy storage system based on a cascaded PWM converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 24, No. 6, Jun. 2009.
L. Maharjan, T. Yamagishi, H. Akagi, and J. Asakura, “Fault-tolerant operation of a battery-energy-storage system based on a multilvel cascaded PWM converter with star configuration,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 25, No. 9 pp. 2386-2396, Sep. 2010.
L. Maharjan, T. Yamagishi, and H. Akagi, “Active-power control of individual converter cells for a battery energy storage system based on a multilevel cascaded PWM converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No. 3 pp. 1099-1107, Mar. 2012.
H. Qian, J. Zhang, J. S. Lai, and W. Yu, “A high-efficiency grid-tie battery energy storage system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 886-896, Mar. 2011.
M. Bragard, N. Soltau, S. Thomas, and R. W. De Doncker, “The balance of renewable sources and user demands in grids: power electronics for modular battery energy storage systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 25, No. 12, pp. 3049-3056, Dec. 2010.
K. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Xing, and J. M. Guerrero, “A distributed control strategy based on DC bus signaling for modular photovoltaic generation systems with battery energy storage,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 26, No. 10, pp. 3032-3045, Oct. 2011.
C. M. Young, N. Y. Chu, L. R. Chen, Y. C. Hsiao, and C. Z. Li, “A single-phase multilevel inverter with battery balancing,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 1972-1978, May 2013.
N. H. Kutkut, H. L. N. Wiegman, D. M. Divan, and D. W. Novotny, “Design considerations for charge equalization of an electric vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 28-35, Jan./Feb. 1999.
W. Dunham, M. Goldstein, and D. J. Kovensky, “A proposed use of zener diodes to improve satellite battery reliability,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 51, No.3, pp. 514, Mar. 1963.
H. S. Park, C. E. Kim, C. H. Kim, G. W. Moon, and J. H. Lee, “A modularized charge equalizer for an HEV lithium-ion battery string,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 1464-1476, May 2009.
D. Y. Jung, Y. H. Kim, S. W. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Development of ultracapacitor modules for 42-V automative electrical systems,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 114, No. 2, pp. 366-373, Mar. 2003.
S. H. Park, K. B. Park, H. S. Kim, G. W. Moon, and M. J. Youn, “Single-magnetic cell-to-cell charge equalization converter with reduced number of transformer windings,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 2900-2911, Jun. 2012.
A. Xu, S. Xie, and X. Liu, “Dynamic voltage equalization for series-connected ultracapacitors in EV/HEV applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 3981-3987, Oct. 2009.
C. Karnjanapiboon, K. Jirasereeamornkul, and V. Monyakul, "High efficiency battery management system for serially connected battery string," in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, pp. 1504-1509, Jul. 2009.
C. H. Kim, M. Y. Kim, H. S. Park, and G. W. Moon, “A modularized two-stage charge equalizer with cell selection switches for series-connected lithium-ion battery string in an HEV,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 3764-3774, Aug. 2012.
L. A. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, T. Cunnyngham, and J. N. Chiasson, “Charge balance control schemes for cascade multilevel converter in hybrid electric vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 1058-1064, Oct. 2002.
Y. Hinago and H. Koizumi, “A single-phase multilevel inverter using switched series/parallel DC voltage sources,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 8, pp. 2643-2650, Aug. 2010.
P. A. Cassani and S. S. Williamson, “Feasibility analysis of a novel cell equalizer topology for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle energy-storage systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 3938-3946, Oct. 2009.
P. A. Cassani and S. S. Williamson, "Design, testing, and validation of a simplified control scheme for a novel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery cell equalizer," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 12, pp. 3956-3962, Dec. 2010.
L. F. Lavado Villa, T. P. Ho, J. C. Crebier, and B. Raison, “A power electronics equalizer application for partially shaded photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 1179-1190, Mar. 2013.
M. Uno and K. Tanaka, “Influence of high-frequency charge-discharge cycling induced by cell voltage equalizers on the life performance of lithium-ion cells,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 1505-1515, May 2011.
A. C. Baughman and M. Ferdowsi, “Double-tiered switched-capacitor battery charge equalization technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 2277-2285, Jun. 2008.
Y. S. Lee and M. W. Cheng, “Intelligent control battery equalization for series connected lithium-ion battery strings,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 1297-1307, Oct. 2005.
Y. S. Lee and G. T. Cheng, “Quasi-resonant zero-currentswitching bidirectional converter for battery equalization applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 1213-1224, Sep. 2006.
Y. Yuanmao, K. W. E. Cheng, and Y. P. B. Yeung, “Zero-current switching switched-capacitor zero-voltagegap automatic equalization system for series battery string,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No. 7, pp. 3234- 3242, Jul. 2012.
M. Uno and K. Tanaka, “Double-switch single-transformer cell voltage equalizer using a half-bridge inverter and a voltage multiplier for series-connected supercapacitors,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 61, No. 9, pp. 3920-3930, Nov. 2012.
H. S. Park, C. H. Kim, K. B. Park, G. W. Moon, and J. H. Lee, “Design of a charge equalizer based on battery modularization,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 58, No. 7, pp. 3216-3223, Sep. 2009.
A. G. Yepes, F. D. Freijedo, O. Lopez, and J. Doval-Gandoy, “Analysis and design of resonant current controllers for voltage-source converters by means of Nyquist diagrams and sensitivity function,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 11, pp. 5231-5250, Nov. 2011.
A. Timbus, M. Liserre, R. Teodorescu, P. Rodriguez, and F. Blaabjerg, “Evaluation of current controllers for distributed power generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 654-664, Mar. 2009.