JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
An experimental performance analysis of a cold region stationary photovoltaic system
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Advances in Energy Research
  • Volume 4, Issue 1,  2016, pp.1-28
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/eri.2016.4.1.001
 Title & Authors
An experimental performance analysis of a cold region stationary photovoltaic system
Choi, Wongyu; Warren, Ryan D.; Pate, Michael B.;
 Abstract
A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system comprised of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) modules was installed in a cold climate region in the U.S. This roof-mounted stationary PV system is a real-world application of PV for building energy generation in International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) Climate Zone 5 (and possibly similar climate zones such as 6, 7 and 8), and it served the purposes of research, demonstration, and education. The importance of this work is highlighted by the fact that there has been less emphasis on solar PV system in this region of the U.S. because of climate and latitude challenges. The system is equipped with an extensive data acquisition system capable of collecting performance and meteorological data while visually displaying real-time and historical data through an interactive online interface. Experimental data was collected and analyzed for the system over a one-year period with the focus of the study being on measurements of power production, energy generation, and efficiency. The annual average daily solar insolation incident upon the array was found to be . During the first year of operation, the PV system provided 5,801 kWh (1,264 kWh/kWp) of usable AC electrical energy, and it was found to operate at an annual average conversion efficiency and PR of 10.6 percent and 0.79, respectively. The annual average DC to AC conversion efficiency of the inverter was found to be 94 percent.
 Keywords
energy and power production;renewable energy;alternative energy;solar energy;energy efficiency;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
An economic analysis comparison of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the US Upper Midwest, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 2017, 1  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Baer, N., Heide, G., Dana, R., Ryan, D., Challender, M. and Else, S.J. (2012), Renewable Energy Incentive Rates: Potential Opportunities for Iowa Farmers, Iowa Environmental Council, Des Moines, IA, USA.

2.
Del Cueto, J. and McMahon, T. (2002), "Analysis of leakage currents in photovoltaic modules under highvoltage bias in the field", Prog. Photovoltaics., 10(1), 15-28. crossref(new window)

3.
Dubey, S., Sarvaiya, J.N. and Seshadri, B. (2013), "Temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency and its effect on PV production in the world-a review", Energy Procedia., 33, 311-321. crossref(new window)

4.
Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A. (1991), Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

5.
Fanny, A.H. and Dougherty, B.P. (2001), "Building Integrated Photovoltaic Test Facility", J. Sol. Energy-T., ASME, 123(3), 194-199. crossref(new window)

6.
Hall, B.H. and Khan, B. (2003), Adoption of New Technology, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, USA.

7.
International Code Council (ICC) (2012), International Energy Conservation Code, R-33. ICC.

8.
Jakubiec, J.A. and Reinhart, C.F. (2013), "A method for predicting city-wide electricity gains from photovoltaic panels based on LiDAR and GIS data combined with hourly Daysim simulations", Sol. Energy, 93, 127-143. crossref(new window)

9.
Kawajiri, K., Oozeki, T. and Genchi, Y. (2011), "Effect of temperature on PV potential in the world", Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(20), 9030-9035. crossref(new window)

10.
King, D.L. and Eckert, P.E. (1996), "Characterizing (rating) the performance of large photovoltaic arrays for all operating conditions", Proceedings of '96 Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, IEEE, Washington, DC, USA.

11.
King, D.L., Boyson, W.E. and Kratochvil, J.A. (2002), "Analysis of factors influencing the annual energy production of photovoltaic system", Proceedings of '02 Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, IEEE, New Orleans, LA, USA.

12.
Li, D.H., Yang, L. and Lam, J.C. (2013), "Zero energy buildings and sustainable development implicationsa review", Energy, 54, 1-10. crossref(new window)

13.
Lubitz, W.D. (2011), "Effect of manual tilt adjustments on incident irradiance on fixed and tracking solar panels", Appl. Eng., 88(5), 1710-1719. crossref(new window)

14.
Marion, B., Adelstein, J., Boyle, K., Hayden, H., Hammond, B., Fletcher, T., Canada, B., Narang, D., Kimber, A. and Mitchell, L. (2005), "Performance parameters for grid-connected PV systems", Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2005, Conference Record of the Thirty-first IEEE, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, January.

15.
Marion, W., Wilcox, S. and Andreas, A. (1994), Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA.

16.
Marszal, A.J., Heiselberg, P., Bourrelle, J.S., Musall, E., Voss, K., Sartori, I. and Napolitano, A. (2011), "Zero energy building-a review of definitions and calculation methodologies", Energy Build., 43(4), 971-979. crossref(new window)

17.
National Climatic Data Center (1998), Climatic Wind data for the United States, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ASHEVILLE, NC, USA.

18.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2008), A Performance Calculator for Grid-Connected PV Systems, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/version1.

19.
National Weather Service Forecast Office (2008), Observed Weather, Des Moines, IA, National Weather Service Forecast Office, http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=dmx.

20.
Norton, P., Christensen, C., Hancock, E., Barker, G. and Reeves, P. (2008), The NREL/Habitat for Humanity Zero Energy Home: A Cold Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes Case Study Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA.

21.
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) (2014), Report PNNL-SA-105477: New town builders: The AitiZEN Plan, Denver, CO, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

22.
Revelle, W. (2006), Lakeside Solar House, http://personality-project.org/r/r.plottingdates.html.

23.
Sherwood, L (2014), U.S. Solar Market Trends 2013, Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Latham, NY, USA.

24.
Whitaker, C.M., Townsend, T.U., Wenger, H.J., Iliceto, A., Chimento, G. and Paletta, F. (1992), "Effects of irradiance and other factors on PV temperature coefficients", Proceedings of '91 Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, IEEE, Las Vegas, NV, USA, October.

25.
Wilcox, S. and Marion, W. (2008), Users Manual for TMY3 Data Sets, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA.