JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Biometry-Mendelian Controversy in the History of Statistics
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Biometry-Mendelian Controversy in the History of Statistics
Jo, Jae-Keun;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
From mid-1890's, biometricians and Mendelians debated over Darwin's evolutionary theory. Biologist W. Weldon and Mathematician K. Pearson were leaders of the biometric school and biologist W. Bateson led Mendelian school. In this paper topics of the controversy such as causation vs. correlation, frequency distribution are considered. And in relation to the tradition of British statistics, we consider the philosophy of Karl Pearson revealed in this debate. Besides many statistical methods and concepts by Karl Pearson, the newly born mathematical statistics got a new journal Biometrika, a department in university, and a school of researchers from this controversy.
 Keywords
Causation and correlation;Mendelism;biometry;evolution and genetics;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
1.
기댓값에 대한 역사적 고찰,이종학;

한국수학사학회지, 2010. vol.23. 3, pp.107-119
 References
1.
베르나르 클로드(1985). <실험의학방법론>, 유석진 옮김, 대광문화사, 서울; Bernard,C. (1865). Introduction al'etude de la medecine experimentale

2.
스티글러 스티븐 (2005).<통계학의 역사>, 조재근 옮김, 한길사, 파주, 경기도; Stigler, S. M. (1986). The History of Statistics. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

3.
헤니그 로빈 (2006). <정원의 수도사>, 안인희 옮김, 사이언스북스, 서울; Henig, R. M. (2000). The Monk in the Garden: The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics. Houghton Mifflin

4.
Aldrich, J. (1995). Correlations genuine and spurious in Pearson and Yule, Statistical Science, 10, 364-376

5.
Barnard, G. A. (1993). Introduction by G. A. Barnard, in Breakthroughs in Statistics: Volume 2: Methodology and Distribution, Edited by Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Springer, New York, 1-10

6.
Bateson, W. (1894). Materials for the Study of Variation Treated with Especial Regard to Discontinuity in the Origin of Species, Macmillan & Company, London, (Reprinted in Bateson, 1928b, 211-312)

7.
Bateson, W. (1901). Heredity, differentiation and other conceptions of biology: A consideration of professor Karl Pearson's paper 'On the principle of homotyposis', In Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 69, 193-205, (Reprinted in Bateson,1928b, 404-418)

8.
Bateson, W. (1904a). Experimental studies in the physiology of heredity, Reports to the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society, II, 1-131

9.
Bateson, W. (1904b). Presidential address to the zoological section, british association: Cambridge meeting, 1904, in Beatrice Bateson, (Reprinted in Bateson, 1928a), 233-259

10.
Bateson, W. (1913). Mendel's Principles of Heredity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

11.
Bateson, W. (1928a). William Bateson, F. R. S. Naturalist: His Essays & Addresses To- gether with a Short Account of His Life by Beatrice Bateson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

12.
Bateson, W. (1928b). Scientific Papers of William Bateson, Edited by R. C. Punnett, 1, 29-68, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

13.
Bowler, P. J. (2003). Evolution: The History of an Idea, 3rd edition, University of California Press, California

14.
Edwards, A. W. F. (2003). R. A. Fisher twice professor of genetics: London and Cambridge or 'A fairly well-known geneticist'. The Statistician, 52, 311-318

15.
Fisher, R. A. (1918). The correlation between relatives on the supposition of mendelian inheritance, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 52, 399- 433

16.
Fisher, R. A. (1924). The biometrical study of heredity, Eugenics Review, 16, 189-210

17.
Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection: A Complete Variorum Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford

18.
Fisher, R. A. (1952). Statistical methods in genetics, Heredity, 6, 1-12 crossref(new window)

19.
Hald, A. (1981). T. N. Thiele's contribution to statistics, International Statistical Review, 49, 1-20 crossref(new window)

20.
Hald, A. (1998). A History of Mathematical Statistics from 1750 to 1930, John Wiley & Sons, New York

21.
Hald, A. (2000). The early history of the cumulants and the Gram-Charlier series, International Statistical Review, 68, 137-153 crossref(new window)

22.
Hilts, V. L. (1981). Statist and Statistician, Arno Press, New York

23.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (1936). Obituary: Professor Karl Pearson, F.R.S., 1857-1936, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 99, 424-428

24.
Kim, K. M. (1994). Explaining Scientific Consensus: the Case of Mendelian Genetics, The Guilford Press, New York

25.
Klein, J. L. (1997). Statistical Visions in Time: A History of Time Series Analysis 1662-1938, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

26.
MacKenzie, D. A. (1981). Statistics in Britain 1865-1930: The Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh

27.
Magnello, M. E. (1998). Karl Pearson's mathematization of inheritance: From ancestral heredity to mendelian genetics (1895-1909), Annals of Science, 55, 35-94 crossref(new window)

28.
Magnello, M. E. (2005). Karl Pearson and the origins of modern statistics: An Elastician becomes a statistician, The Rutherford Journal, 1, http://www.rutherfordjournal.org/

29.
Mendel, G. (1866). Experiments in Plant - Hybridisation, Harvard University Press, Cambridge

30.
Morrell, J. and Thackray, A. (1981). Gentlemen of Science: Early Years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Clarendon Press (Oxford University), Oxford

31.
Morrison, M. (2002). Modelling populations: Pearson and Fisher on Mendelism and biometry, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 53, 39-68 crossref(new window)

32.
Olby, R. C. (1966). Origins of Mendelism, Constable, London

33.
Pearson, E. S. (1936). Karl Pearson: An appreciation of some aspects of his life and work, Biometrika, 28, 193-257

34.
Pearson, K. (1892). The Grammar of Science, Walter Scott, London ($2^{nd} $ed., 1900; 3rd ed., 1911; Everyman's Library ed., 1937)

35.
Pearson, K. (1894). Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Evolution, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Londos, Serise A, 185, 71-110 crossref(new window)

36.
Pearson, K. (1895). Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution-II. Skew variation in homogeneous material, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Serise A, 186, 343-414 crossref(new window)

37.
Pearson, K. (1896). Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution, III. Re- gression, heredity and panmixia, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Serise A, 187, 253-318 crossref(new window)

38.
Pearson, K. (1900). On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling, Philosophical Magazine, series 5, 157-175 (reprinted in Breakthroughs in Statistics: Volume 2, edited by Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Springer, New York, 1993, 11-28)

39.
Pearson, K. (1901). Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution IX: On the principle of homotyposis and its relation to heredity, to the variability of the in- dividual and to that of the race. Part I. homotypos in the vegetable kingdom, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Serise A, 197, 285-379 crossref(new window)

40.
Pearson, K. (1902). On the fundamental conceptions of biology, Biometrika, 1, 320-344 crossref(new window)

41.
Pearson, K. (1914-1930). The Life, Letters, and Labours of Francis Galton, Cambridge University Press, London

42.
Porter, T. M. (1986). The Rise of Statistical Thinking 1820-1900, Princeton University Press, Princeton

43.
Porter, T. M. (2004). Karl Pearson: the Scientific Life in a Statistical Age, Princeton University Press, Princeton

44.
Provine, W. B. (1971). The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago

45.
Reid, C. (1982). Neyman - From Life, Springer, New York

46.
Rushton, A. R. (2000). Nettleship, Pearson and Bateson: The biometric-Mendelian debate in a medical context, Journal of the History of Medicine, 55, 134-157

47.
Statistical Society of London (1838), Introduce, fourth annal report of the council of the ststistical society of London, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 1, 1-13 crossref(new window)

48.
Stigler, S. M. (2005). Fisher in 1921, Statistical Science, 20, 32-49 crossref(new window)

49.
Sturtevant, A. H. (1965). A History of Genetics, Harper and Row, New York

50.
Weldon, W. F. R. (1893). On certain correlated variation in Carcinus maenas, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 54, 318-329

51.
Weldon, W. F. R. (1894). The study of animal variation, Nature, 50, 24-26 crossref(new window)

52.
Yates, F. and Mather, K. (1963). Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962: Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London, available form the R. A. Fisher Digital Archive, University of Adelaide

53.
Yule, G. U. (1932). An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, 10th ed., Charles Gri$\pm$n and Company, London