Advanced SearchSearch Tips
History of the Error and the Normal Distribution in the Mid Nineteenth Century
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
History of the Error and the Normal Distribution in the Mid Nineteenth Century
Jo, Jae-Keun;
  PDF(new window)
About 1800, mathematicians combined analysis of error and probability theory into error theory. After developed by Gauss and Laplace, error theory was widely used in branches of natural science. Motivated by the successful applications of error theory in natural sciences, scientists like Adolph Quetelet tried to incorporate social statistics with error theory. But there were not a few differences between social science and natural science. In this paper we discussed topics raised then. The problems considered are as follows: the interpretation of individual man in society; the arguments against statistical methods; history of the measures for diversity. From the successes and failures of the century social statisticians, we can see how statistics became a science that is essential to both natural and social sciences. And we can see that those problems, which were not easy to solve for the century social statisticians, matter today too.
History of statistics;error;normal distribution;Quetelet;social science;
 Cited by
배비 얼 (2007). 사회조사방법론 , 고성호 외 옮김, 톰슨코포레이션코리아, 서울; Babbie, E. (2007). The Practice of Social Research, 11th edition, Thomson, Belmont, CA

베르누이 자코브 (2008). 추측술 , 조재근 옮김 , 지만지 , 서울; Bernoulli, J. (1713).Ars Conjectandι Thurnisiorum, Basil

디킨즈 찰스 (1989). 어려운 시절 , 장남수 옮김, 푸른산, 서울; Dickens, C. (1854). Hard Times, Bradbury and Evans, London

스티글러 스티븐 (2005). 통계학의 역사 , 조재근 옮김, 한길사, 파주, 경기도; Stigler, S. M. (1986). The History of Statistics, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass

코언 I. B. (2005). 세상을 삼킨 숫자 이야기 , 김병남 옮김, 생각의나무, 서울 ; Cohen,I. B. (2005). The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life, Norton, New York

Bowley, A. L. (1913). Working-class households in reading, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 76, 672-701 crossref(new window)

Bowley, A. L. (1919). Elements of Statistics, 3rd edition, P. S. King, London

Brunt, D. (1931). The Combination of Observations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Clogg, C. C. (1992). The impact of sociological methodology on statistical methodology: Rejoinder(with discussions), Statistical Science, 7, 183-207 crossref(new window)

De Moivre, A. (1756). The Doctrine of Chances, 3rd edition, Millar, London

Fisher, R. A. (1925). Statistical Methods for Research Workers, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh

Galton, F. (1877). Typical laws of heredity, Proceedings of the Royal Institution, 8, 282-301

Galton, F. (1889). Natural Inheritance, Macmillan, London

Gigerenzer, G., Swijtink, Z., Porter, T., Daston, L., Beatty, J. and Kruuger, L. (1989). The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Hacking, I. (1990). The Taming of Chance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Hald, A. (1990). A History of Probability and Statistics and Their Applications before 1750, John Wiley & Sons, New York

Hald, A. (1998). A History of Mathematical Statistics from 1750 to 1930, John Wiley & Sons, New York

Mayr, E. (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass and London

Merriman, M. (1884). A Text-Book on the Method of Least Squares, 8th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York

Pearson, K. (1894). Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A, 185, 71-110 crossref(new window)

Porter, T. M. (1986). The Rise of Statistical Thinking 1820-1900, Princeton University Press, Princeton

Porter, T. M. (1994). From Quetelet to Maxwell: Social statistics and the origins of statistical physics, In The Natural Sciences and the Social Sciences, edited by Cohen, I., Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1994, 345-362

Quetelet, A. (1842). A Treatise on Man and the Development of His Faculties, Chambers, Edinburgh; Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses faculties, ou Essai de physique sociale. Bachelier, Paris, 1835

Quetelet, A. (1849). Letters Addressed to H. T. H. the Grand Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, on the Theory of Probabilities as Applied to the Moral and Political Sciences, translated by O. G. Downes, Charles & Edwin Layton, London; Lettres a S. A. R. le Duc Regnant de Saxe-Cobourg et Gotha, sur la theorie des probabilites, appliquee aux sciences morales et ploitiques, Hayez, Brussels, 1846

Seal, H. L. (1967). The historical development of Gauss linear model, Biometrika, 64, 1-24

Sheynin, O. B. (1985). Density curves in the theory of errors, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 49, 164-196

Sheynin, O. B. (1994). Theory of errors, in Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences, edited by I. Grattan-Guinness, Routledge, 2, 1315-1324

Sheynin, O. B. (1996). Aleksandr A. Chuprov: Life, Work, Correspondence, The making of mathematical statistics, Guottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

Whittaker, E. T. and Robinson, G. (1926). The Calculus of Observations: A Treatise on Numerical Mathematics, 2nd edition, Blackie and Son, London

Yule, G. U. (1911). An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, 1st edition, Charles Griffin and Company, London

Yule, G. U. (1932). An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, 10th edition, Charles Griffin and Company, London

Yule, G. U. (1937). An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, 11th edition, Charles Griffin and Company, London