Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Determining a BMDL of Blood Lead Based on ADHD Scores Using a Semi-Parametric Regression
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Determining a BMDL of Blood Lead Based on ADHD Scores Using a Semi-Parametric Regression
Kim, Ah-Hyoun; Ha, Min-A; Kim, Byung-Soo;
  PDF(new window)
This paper derives a benchmark dose(BMD) and its 95% lower confidence limit(BMDL) using a semi-parametric regression model for small lead based changes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) scores in the first wave of the Children's Health and Environment Research(CHEER) survey data, which have been regularly collected in South Korea since 2005. Ha et al. (2009) showed that the appearance of ADHD symptoms had a borderline trend of increasing with the blood lead concentration. Butdz-Jrgensen (EFSA, 2010a) derived the BMDL of lead corresponding to a benchmark region of 1 full intelligent quotient (IQ) score using the raw data in Lanphear et al. (2005, EHP). European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, 2010b) determined the BMDL of as a reference point for the characterization of lead when assessing the risk of the intellectual deficit measured by IQ scores. Kim et al. (2011) indicated that an even lower BMDL could be obtained based on the ADHD score; however, the BMDLs depended heavily upon the model assumptions. We show in this paper that a semi-parametric approach resolves the model dependence of BMDLs.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;benchmark dose lower limit;reference point;semi-parametric regression;
 Cited by
동집단 자료의 주의력 결핍 과잉행동 장애를 종점으로 한 납의 벤치마크 용량 하한 도출,김병수;김대희;하미나;권호장;

Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society, 2014. vol.25. 5, pp.987-998 crossref(new window)
Derivation of benchmark dose lower limit of lead for ADHD based on a longitudinal cohort data set, Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society, 2014, 25, 5, 987  crossref(new windwow)
National Health Insurance Corportation, Korea. (2012). Data request through personal communication.

Budtz-Jrgensen, E., Keiding, N. and Grandjean, P. (2001). Benchmark dose calculation from epidemiological data, Biometrics, 57, 698-706. crossref(new window)

Can eld, R. L., Henderson, C. R. Jr., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Cox, C., Jusko, T. A. and Lanphear, B. P. (2003). Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microgram per deciliter, The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 1517-1526. crossref(new window)

Crump, K. (1984). A new method for determining allowable daily intakes, Fundamental and Applied Toxi- cology, 4, 854-871. crossref(new window)

Crump, K. (1995). Calculation of benchmark doses from continuous data, Risk Analysis, 15, 79-89. crossref(new window)

EFSA (2010a). An international pooled analysis for obtaining a benchmark dose for environmental lead exposure in children. (Question $N^{\circ}$.EFSA-Q-2009-01078).

EFSA (2010b). EFSA Panel on Contaminant in the Food Chain(CONTAM); Scientific Opinion on Lead in Food, EFSA Journal 2010, 8(4), 1570 [147pp]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1570. Available online:

Gaylor, D. W. and Slikker, W. Jr. (1990). Risk assessment for neurotoxic effect, Neurotoxicology, 11, 211-218.

Ha, M., Kwon, H.-J., Lim, M.-H., Jee, Y.-K., Hong, Y.-C., Leem, J.-H., Sakong, J., Bae, J.-M., Hong, S.- J., Roh, Y.-M. and Jo, S.-J. (2009). Low blood levels of lead and mercury and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity in children: A report of the children's health and environment research (CHEER), Neurotoxicology, 30, 31-36. crossref(new window)

JECFA (2000) Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants, WHO Technical Report Series, 896, 80-83.

Kim, B.-S., Ha, M. and Kwon, H.-J. (2011). A benchmark dose analysis for lead exposure on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder data of Korean children, Biometrie und Medizinische Informatik, 18, 59-69.

Lanphear, B. P., Hornung, R., Khoury, J., Yolton, K., Baghurst, P., Bellinger, D. C., Can eld, R. L., Dietrich, K. N., Bornschein, R., Green, T., Rothenberg, S. J., Needleman, H. L., Schnaas, L., Wasserman, G., Graziano, J. and Roberts, R. (2005). Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis, Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 854-899.

Ruppert, D., Wand, M. P. and Carroll, R. J. (2003). Semiparametric Regression, Cambridge University Press, New York.

So, Y. K., Kim, Y. S., Choi, N. K., Kim, S. J., Non, J. S. and Ko, Y. J. (2003). The reliability and validity of Korean Conner's parent and teacher rating scale, J Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 14, 183-194.

US CDC (1991). Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

US CDC (2005). MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 54(20), 513-516.

Wheeler, M. W. and Bailer, J. A. (2009). Comparing model averaging with other model selection strategies for benchmark dose estimation, Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 16, 37-51. crossref(new window)

WHO (1995). Environmental Health Criteria 165-Inorganic Lead. Geneva: International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization.