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The Effects of Slow Steaming on the Liners` Operating Strategy
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 Title & Authors
The Effects of Slow Steaming on the Liners` Operating Strategy
Woo, Jong-Kyun;
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In recent times, an obvious strategy in liner shipping markets that has come to the fore is slow steaming. Nowadays, most liner shipping companies have decelerated the voyage speed to 15-18 knots on major routes, and some leading liner shipping companies have a plan to reduce it to below 15 knots. Slow steaming is helpful in reducing the operating cost and the amount of greenhouse-gas emissions on a single vessel with lower fuel consumption. However, it also creates various negative effects such as the opportunity cost, additional fixed costs and an in-transit inventory cost on a loop. Hence, the net operating cost on a loop is changing dynamically due to the changes of voyage speed based on various slow steaming effects. The aim of this study is to analyze the slow steaming effects in the liner shipping, and to find the best voyage speed that minimizes the operating cost on a loop. Moreover, this study suggests the recommendable strategy for liner shipping companies. To achieve the aim of this study, a simulation model has been designed using System Dynamics.
liner shipping company;slow steaming;the best voyage speed;operating costs;system dynamics;
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