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Experimental Results of Ship-To-Ship Lightering Operations Applied Velocity Information GPS
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 Title & Authors
Experimental Results of Ship-To-Ship Lightering Operations Applied Velocity Information GPS
Yoo, Yun-Ja; Pedersen, Egil; Kouguchi, Nobuyoshi; Song, Chae-Uk;
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A ship-to-ship (STS) lightering operation takes place in order to transfer cargo (e.g. crude oil or petroleum products) between an ocean-going ship and a service ship alongside it. Instrumental measurements to accurately determine the relative speeds and distances during the approach between the vessels would benefit the operational safety and efficiency. A velocity information GPS (VI-GPS) system, which uses the instantaneous velocity measures from carrier-phase Doppler measurement, has been applied in a field observation onboard a service ship (Aframax tanker) approaching a ship-to-be-lightered (VLCC) in open waters. This article proposes to apply VI-GPS as the input sensor to a guidance and decision-support system aiming to provide accurate velocity information to the officer in charge of an STS operation. A method for precise velocity measurement using VI-GPS was described and the measurement results were compared each other with the results of Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) and VI-GPS that showed the concept of a guidance and decision-support system applying VI-GPS with the field test results during STS operations. Also, it turned out that VI-GPS has sufficient accuracy to serve as an input sensor from the field test results.
ship-to-ship lightering;ship-to-be-lightered;service ship;kinematic GPS;carrier-phase-derived Doppler measurement;velocity information GPS;Voyage Data Recorder;
 Cited by
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ICS & OCIMF(2005), "Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Petroleum)", Witherbys Publishing.

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Pedersen, E., Shimizu, E. and Berg, T.E.(2008), "Navigational Challenges for Ships Operating in Close Proximity", 2008 International Conference on Safety and Operations in Canals and Waterways.

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Yoo, Y., Pedersen, E., Tatsumi, K., Kouguchi, N. and Arai, Y.(2009), "Application of 3-D Velocity Measurement of Vessel by VI-GPS for STS Lightering", 2009 International Navigational Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation.