An Analysis of Stress Pattern in the Coracoclavicular Ligaments with Scapular Movements: A Cadaveric Study Using Finite Element Model Kim, Yoon Sang; Kim, In-Sung; Yoo, Yon-Sik; Jang, Seong-Wook; Yang, Cheol-Jung;
Background: Acromioclavicular (AC) stability is maintained through a complex combination of soft-tissue restraints that include coracoclavicular (CC), AC ligament and overlying muscles. Among these structures, the role of the CC ligament has continued to be studied because of its importance on shoulder kinematics, especially after AC injury. This study was designed to determine the geometric change of conoid and trapezoid ligaments and resulting stresses on these ligaments according to various scapular motions. Methods: The scapuloclavicular (SC) complex was isolated from a fresh-frozen cadaver by removing all soft tissues except the AC and CC ligaments. The anatomically aligned SC complex was then scanned with a high-resolution computed tomography scanner into 0.6- mm slices. The Finite element model of the SC complex was obtained and used for calculating the stress on different parts of the CC ligaments with simulated movements of the scapula. Results: Average stress on the conoid ligament during anterior tilt, internal rotation, and scapular protraction was higher, whereas the stress on the trapezoid ligament was more prominent during posterior tilt, external rotation, and retraction. Conclusions: We conclude that CC ligament plays an integral role in regulating horizontal SC motion as well as complex motions indicated by increased stress over the ligament with an incremental scapular position change. The conoid ligament is the key structure restraining scapular protraction that might occur in high-grade AC dislocation. Hence in CC ligament reconstructions involving only single bundle, every attempt must be made to reconstruct conoid part of CC ligament as anatomically as possible.
Acromioclavicular stability;Coraclavicular ligament;Scapuloclavicular complex;Finite element model;
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