JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Shoulder and Elbow Injury Rates and Patterns in Korean Rookie Professional Baseball Pitchers
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
  • Volume 19, Issue 1,  2016, pp.15-19
  • Publisher : Korean Shoulder and Elbow Society
  • DOI : 10.5397/cise.2016.19.1.15
 Title & Authors
Shoulder and Elbow Injury Rates and Patterns in Korean Rookie Professional Baseball Pitchers
Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yong-Il; Heo, Gu-Yeon;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Background: To investigate how many rookie pitchers suffered from injuries while playing in the amateur league without guidelines for prevention of excessive pitching, we analyzed their amateur pitching patterns based on the pitch count, use of breaking balls, and pitches during winter camp. Methods: Forty-one rookie pitchers who graduated from high school or university in 2013 and joined professional baseball teams. Participants were interviewed by a trainer using our questionnaire. Injury inclusion criteria were 1) history of shoulder surgery, 2) history of elbow surgery, 3) shoulder pain requiring treatment, and 4) elbow pain requiring treatment. Results: Mean number of pitches per game and warm-up pitches for practice was 84.5 pitches (range, 15 to 130 pitches) and 16.4 pitches (range, 2 to 210 pitches), respectively. Mean number of pitches during the last year was 906.9 (range, 80 to 2,000). Mean number of maximal pitches was 127 pitches (range, 50 to 210 pitches). Fourteen pitchers had pitched over 150 pitches. Twenty-seven pitchers (65.9%) had pitched in spite of enduring pain. During winter training (mean 1.8 months), mean number of pitches per day was 162.5 pitches, and 20 pitchers (48.8%) had practiced pitching excessively despite the cold weather. Twenty-six rookies (63.4%) had shoulder pain or history of shoulder surgery, and 31 pitchers (75.6%) had elbow pain or history of elbow surgery. Only four participants (9.8%) did not have pain and history of surgery. Conclusions: For young baseball pitchers, guidelines for prevention of excessive pitching and for regulating the winter training program may be needed.
 Keywords
Pitch count;Winter camp;Youth pitcher;Guideline;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Collins CL, Comstock RD. Epidemiological features of high school baseball injuries in the United States, 2005-2007. Pediatrics. 2008;121(6):1181-7. crossref(new window)

2.
Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. American Academy of Pediatrics: risk of injury from baseball and softball in children. Pediatrics. 2001;107(4):782-4. crossref(new window)

3.
Dun S, Loftice J, Fleisig GS, Kingsley D, Andrews JR. A biomechanical comparison of youth baseball pitches: is the curveball potentially harmful? Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(4):686-92. crossref(new window)

4.
Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Cutter GR, et al. Risk of serious injury for young baseball pitchers: a 10-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(2):253-7. crossref(new window)

5.
Fleisig GS, Weber A, Hassell N, Andrews JR. Prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball pitchers. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2009; 8(5):250-4. crossref(new window)

6.
Lyman S, Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Osinski ED. Effect of pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(4):463-8.

7.
Olsen SJ 2nd, Fleisig GS, Dun S, Loftice J, Andrews JR. Risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(6):905-12. crossref(new window)

8.
Petty DH, Andrews JR, Fleisig GS, Cain EL. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in high school baseball players: clinical results and injury risk factors. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(5):1158-64. crossref(new window)

9.
Lyman S, Fleisig GS, Waterbor JW, et al. Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(11):1803-10. crossref(new window)

10.
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Youth baseball studies [Internet]. Rosemont (IL): American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine; [cited 2012 Apr 11]. Available from: http://www.sportsmed.org/AOSSMIMIS/Members/Members/Research/Youth_Baseball_Studies.aspx.

11.
American Sports Medicine Institute. Position statement for youth baseball pitchers [Internet]. Birmingham (AL): American Sports Medicine Institute; [cited 2012 Jun 13]. Available from: http://www.asmi.org/research.php?page=research§ion=positionStatement.

12.
Baseball Canada. Rules governing pitch count in mosquito, pee wee, bantam (boys & girls), and midget division [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Baseball Canada; [cited 2012 Apr 13]. Available from: http://www.baseball.ca/files/2012%20Pitch%20Count%201%20pager.pdf.

13.
Rice SG, Congeni JA; Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Baseball and softball. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):e842-56. crossref(new window)

14.
Nissen CW, Westwell M, Ounpuu S, Patel M, Solomito M, Tate J. A biomechanical comparison of the fastball and curveball in adolescent baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(8):1492-8. crossref(new window)

15.
Fazarale JJ, Magnussen RA, Pedroza AD, Kaeding CC, Best TM, Classie J. Knowledge of and compliance with pitch count recommendations: a survey of youth baseball coaches. Sports Health. 2012;4(3):202-4. crossref(new window)

16.
Yukutake T, Yamada M, Aoyama T. A survey examining the correlations between Japanese little league baseball coaches' knowledge of and compliance with pitch count recommendations and player elbow pain. Sports Health. 2013;5(3):239-43. crossref(new window)