Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Time Spent for Child Care among Employed and Non-Employed Mothers with Young Children
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Time Spent for Child Care among Employed and Non-Employed Mothers with Young Children
Kwon, SoonBum; Chin, Meejung;
  PDF(new window)
This study aims to better estimate the amount of time spent for child care and to understand the characteristics of time spent for child care among employed and non-employed mothers with children under age 6 by taking concurrent activities into account. To assess time spent for child care, I differentiate child care activities into three types: primary activity without concurrent activities, primary activity with concurrent activities, and secondary activity with concurrent activities. The Major results of this study are as follows: First, employed mothers spent 145 minutes less than non-employed mothers in the total amount of time spent for child care during weekdays and this difference diminished to 62 minutes on weekends. Specifically there were differences in all types of time spent for child care among employed and non-employed mothers during weekdays, while the difference was only significant in the average amount of primary time spent for child care without concurrent activities on weekends. Second, there was no difference in the average ratio of time spent for child care with concurrent activities among employed and non-employed mothers during weekdays. By contrast, the average ratio of time spent for child care with concurrent activities of employed mothers was 5% higher than non-employed mothers on weekends. Lastly, the highest concurrent activity with child care activities was leisure followed by housework. This means that child care, leisure, and housework are somewhat related to each other among mothers.
Employed Mothers;Non-Employed Mothers;Time Spent for Child Care;Concurrent Activities;
 Cited by
Bhat, C. R., & Misra, R. (1999). Discretionary activity time allocation of individuals between in-home and out-of-home and between weekdays and weekends. Transportation, 26(2), 193-229. crossref(new window)

Bianchi, S. M. (2000). Maternal employment and time with children: Dramatic change or surprising continuity?. Demography, 37(4), 401-414. crossref(new window)

Booth, C. L., Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Vandell, D. L., McCartney, K., & Owen, M. T. (2002). Child-care usage and mother-infant "Quality Time". Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(1), 16-26. crossref(new window)

Cha, S.-E. (2010). Who is the busiest in Korea? A study on gender difference in time pressure. Korea Journal of Population Studies, 33(1), 27-49.

Cha, S.-E. (2011). A study on perceived time pressure and time use: Focusing on the employed men and women in Korea by using 1999 and 2009 time diary data. Journal of Korean Family Resource Management Association, 15(3), 131-151.

Cha, S.-E. (2013). Weekend time use among married couples: Who are able to sleep more on weekends?. Family and Culture, 25(3), 1-30.

Choi, S. E. (2014). Evaluation of social services for infants and children and strategies for improvements. The Journal of Korean Public Policy, 16(3), 63-95.

Connelly, R., & Kimmel, J. (2015). If you're happy and you know it: How do mothers and fathers in the US really feel about caring for their children?. Feminist Economics, 21(1), 1-34.

Craig, L. (2006). Does father care mean fathers share? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20(2), 259-281. crossref(new window)

Drago, R. W., & Stewart, J. C. (2010). Time-use surveys: Issues in data collection on multitasking. Monthly Labor Review, 133(8), 17-31.

Eun, K.-S. (2010). Gender difference in TV viewing time in Korean daily life. Korean Studies Quarterly, 33(4), 395-427. crossref(new window)

Folbre, N., & Yoon, J. (2007). What is child care? Lessons from time-use surveys of major English-speaking countries. Review of Economics of the Household, 5(3), 223-248. crossref(new window)

Folbre, N., Yoon, J., Finnoff, K., & Fuligni, A. S. (2005). By what measure? Family time devoted to children in the United States. Demography, 42(2), 373-390. crossref(new window)

Heo, S.-Y. (2008). Research on time use for housework of women and men in double income households. Journal of Korean Women's Studies, 24(3), 177-210. crossref(new window)

Hong, S., & Kim, S. (2011). The affects on the parents' nurturing behavior & parent-child communication and parental satisfaction level of weekend family leisure program. Journal of the Society for Cognitive Enhancement and Intervention, 2(2), 121-139.

Huston, A. C., & Rosenkrantz Aronson, S. (2005). Mothers' time with infant and time in employment as predictors of mother-child relationships and children's early development. Child Development, 76(2), 467-482. crossref(new window)

Johnson, S. E. (2010). Time pressure and the wellbeing of parents with young children in Australia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Curtin University of Technology, Australia.

Joo, E., Kim, S., & Kim, M. (2014). A study on parental time for preschool children in Korea. Korean Social Security Studies, 30(2), 367-400.

Jung, T., & Roh, H. (2005). Differences between the employed and the unemployed mothers in parenting guilt and behaviors. The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 10(2), 211-231.

Kapur, A., & Bhat, C. (2007). Modeling adults' weekend day-time use by activity purpose and accompaniment arrangement. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2021, 18-27. crossref(new window)

Kim, H. J., & Nam, K. S. (2007). A study on change of simultaneous activities. Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 9(1), 343-357.

Kim, J. H., & Moon, H. J. (2006). Variables related to the parental role satisfaction and parenting behaviors of employed and unemployed mothers. Family and Environment Research, 44(1), 115-129.

Kim, N. H., Lee, E. J., Kwak, S. Y., & Park, M. R. (2013). A phenomenological study on the experiences of parenting burden of working mother with young children in Korea. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 19(3), 188-200. crossref(new window)

Lee, Y.-H., & Lee, S.-J. (2007). Analysis of the time use of working women and housewives having preschool children: Centering on the data of the time use survey conducted by National Statistical Office in 2004. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 10(1), 19-25.

Lee, Y.-M., & Min, H.-Y. (2014). Working and non-working mothers‘ perception of financial pressure and marital conflict and their influence on child-rearing stress: The mediation of marital conflict. Korean Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 9(3), 73-89.

Milkie, M. A., Mattingly, M. J., Nomaguchi, K. M., Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. P. (2004). The time squeeze: Parental statuses and feelings about time with children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(3), 739-761. crossref(new window)

Milkie, M. A., Raley, S. B., & Bianchi, S. M. (2009). Taking on the second shift: Time allocations and time pressures of US parents with preschoolers. Social Forces, 88(2), 487-517. crossref(new window)

Miller, Y. D., & Brown, W. J. (2005). Determinants of active leisure for women with young children: An "ethic of care" prevails. Leisure Sciences, 27(5), 405-420. crossref(new window)

Nam, K. S., & Kim, H. J. (2003). Analysis of simultaneous activities on the time use survey using association rule. Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 5(3), 625-635.

Offer, S., & Schneider, B. (2011). Revisiting the gender gap in time-use patterns multitasking and well-being among mothers and fathers in dual-earner families. American Sociological Review, 76(6), 809-833. crossref(new window)

Park, E. J., & Lee, S.-L. (2013). Differences in time deficit and time satisfaction according to the types of child care time of dual-earner coupes with preschool children. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 31(4), 97-111.

Sayer, L. C. (2007). More work for mothers? Trends and gender differences in multitasking. In T. van der Lippe & P. Peters (Eds.), Competing claims in work and family life (pp. 41-55). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elger.

Shon, A. (2000). Characteristics and development of Time Use Survey. Survey Research, 1(1), 135-148.

Sullivan, O., & Gershuny, J. (2013). Domestic outsourcing and multitasking: How much do they really contribute? Social Science Research, 42(5), 1311-1324. crossref(new window)

Yang, S., & Shin, C. S. (2011). Work-family conflicts: Challenges of working mothers with young children. Health and Social Welfare Review, 31(3), 70-103. crossref(new window)

Zick, C. D., & Bryant, W. K. (1996). A new look at parents' time spent in child care: Primary and secondary time use. Social Science Research, 25(3), 260-280. crossref(new window)