Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Seismic Surface Wave Cloaking by Acoustic Wave Refraction
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Seismic Surface Wave Cloaking by Acoustic Wave Refraction
Lee, Dong-Woo; Kang, Young-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon;
  PDF(new window)
Recently two seismic cloaking methods of earthquake engineering have been suggested. One is the seismic wave deflection method that makes the seismic wave bend away and the other is the shadow zone method that makes an area that seismic waves cannot pass through. It is called as seismic cloaking. The fundamental principles of the seismic cloaking by variable refractive index were explained. A two-dimensional cylindrical model which was composed of 40 layers of different density and modulus was tested by numerical simulation. The center region of the model to be protected is called 'cloaked area' and the outer region of it to deflect the incoming wave is called 'cloaking area' or 'cloak area.' As the incoming surface wave is approaching to the cloaking area, the refractive index is decreasing and, therefore, the velocity and impedance are increasing. Then, the wave bends away the cloaked area instead of passing it. Three cases are tested depending on the comparison between the seismic wavelength and the diameter of the cloaked region. The advantage and disadvantage of the method were compared with conventional earthquake engineering method. Some practical requirements for realization in fields were discussed.
Earthquake;Metamaterials;Acoustic cloaking;Refractive index;
 Cited by
Villaverde R. Fundamental Concepts of Earthquake Engineering. 1st ed. New York: CRC; c2009. 960 p.

Lee JS. Scattering of Surface Waves in Anisotropic Media for Applications in Wave Barrier and Non-Destructive Evaluation. J Earthquake Eng Soc Kor. 1998 Jun;2(2):77-85.

Lee JH, Kim JK, Hong KJ. Characteristics of Earthquake Responses of an Isolated Containment Building in Nuclear Power Plants According to Natural Frequency of Soil. J Earthquake Eng Soc Kor. 2013 Nov;17(6): 245-55. crossref(new window)

Jeon BG, Choi HS, Hahm DG, Kim NS, Seismic Fragility Analysis of Base Isolated NPP Ping Systems, J Earthquake Eng Soc Kor. 2015 Jan;19(1): 29-36. crossref(new window)

Pendry JB. Optics: Positively negative. Nature. 2003 May;423:22-23. crossref(new window)

Pendry JB. Photonics: Metamaterials in the sunshine. Nature Materials. 2006 Aug;5:599-600. crossref(new window)

Pendry JB, Schurig D, Smith DR. Controlling Electromagnetic Fields. Science. 2006 May;312(5781):1780-1782. crossref(new window)

Schurig D, Mock JJ, Justice BJ, Cummer SA, Pendry JB, Starr AF, Smith DR. Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies. Science. 2006 Oct;314:977-980. crossref(new window)

Leonhardt U , Philbin T. Geometry and Light, The science of invisibility. 1st ed. New York: Dover; c2010. 288 p.

Caloz C, Itoh T. Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications. 1st ed. New York: Wiley; c2006. 376 p.

Solymar L, Shamonia E. Waves in Metamaterials. 1st ed. London: Oxford; c2009. 208 p.

Gomory F, Solovyov M, Souc J, Navau C, Prat-Camps J, Sanchez A. Experimental Realization of a Magnetic Cloak. Science. 2012 Mar 23;335(6075):1466-1468. crossref(new window)

Schittny R, Kadic M, Guenneau S, Wegener M. Experiments on Transformation Thermodynamics: Molding the Flow of Heat. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 May;110(19):195901. crossref(new window)

Schittny R, Kadic M , Buckmann T, Wegener M. Invisibility cloaking in a diffusive light scattering medium. Science. 2014 Jul; 345(6195):427-429. crossref(new window)

Milton GW, Briane M, Willis JR. On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form. New J Phys. 2006 Oct;8(10):248(21pages). crossref(new window)

McCall MW, Favaro A, Kinsler P, Boardman A. A spacetime cloak, or a history editor. J Opt. 2011 Feb;13(2):024003(9pages). crossref(new window)

Boyd RW, Shi Z. Optical physics: How to hide in time. Naure. 2012 Jan;481(7379):35-36.

Farhat M, Guenneau S, Enoch S, Movchan AB. Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates. Phys Rev B. 2009 Jan;79(3):033102(4pages). crossref(new window)

Farhat M, Guenneau S, Enoch S. Ultrabroadband Elastic Cloaking in Thin Plates. Phys Rev Lett. 2009 Jul;103(2):024301(4pages). crossref(new window)

Farhat M, Guenneau S, Enoch S. Broadband cloaking of bending waves via homogenization of multiply perforated radially symmetric and isotropic thin elastic plates. Phys Rev B. 2012 Jan;85(2):020301(4pages)(R).

Kim SH, Das MP. Artificial Shadow Zone by Acoustic Metamaterials, Mod Phys Lett B. 2013 Jul;27(20):1350140(9pages).

Kim SH, Das MP. Seismic Waveguide of Metamaterials. Mod Phys Lett B. 2012 Jun;26(17):1250105(8pages).

Kim SH, Seismic Wave Technology Using Acoustic Metamaterials, New Phys. 2013 Sep;63(9):1032-1037.

Udias A. Principles of Seismology. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press; c2000. 492 p.

Aki K, Richards PG. Quantitative Seismology. 2nd ed. New York: University Science Books; c2009. 700 p.

Kuznetsov SV. Seismic Waves and Seismic Barriers. Acoustical Physics. 2011 May 28;57(3):420-426. crossref(new window)

Audin A, Lacan P, Tavera H, Bondoux F. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone: The Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera. southern Peru Tectonophysics. 2008 Nov;459(1-4):174-185. crossref(new window)

Michel GW, Janssen C. Deformation along an apparent seismic barrier: a palaeoseismological study along the North Anatolian Fault. Annali Di Geofisica. 1996 May;39(3):647-662.

O'Hanlon L. Earthquakes that break seismic sound barrier confirmed in lab experiments. [Internet]. U. S. A.: sott. net, Science & Technology; 2013 Jun. Available from: seismic-sound-barrier-confirmed-in-lab-experiments

Cummer SA, Schurig D. One path to acoustic cloaking. New J. Phys. 2007 Mar;9:45(4pages). crossref(new window)

Cai LW, Sanchez-Dehesa J. Analysis of Cummer-Schurig acoustic cloaking. New J Phys. 2007 Dec;9:450(10pages). crossref(new window)

Daniel T, Sanchez-Dehesa J. Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach. New J Phys. 2008 Jun;10:063015(10pages). crossref(new window)

Pryor RW. Multiphysics Modeling Using COMSOL 4. Har/DVD ed. Herndon: Mercury Learning & Information; c2011, 700 p.

Storrs C. Earthquake-proof skyscrapers hide from seismic waves. [Internet]. U. S. A.: Popular Science; 2009 Oct. Available from:

Brule S, Javelaud EH, Enoch S, Guenneau S. Experiments on Seismic Metamaterials: Molding Surface Waves. Phys Rev Lett. 2014 Mar;112(13):133901(5pages). crossref(new window)

Sheng P. Viewpoint: A Step Towards a Seismic Cloak. Physics 2014 Mar;7:34(3pages). crossref(new window)

Piore A. How to Make Anything Disappear, 3.Earthquake Cloak [Internet]. U. S. A.: Discover Magazine; 2012 Jul/Aug. Available from: