JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Taxonomic Characterization and Safety of Nuruk Molds Used Industrially in Korea
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : The Korean Journal of Mycology
  • Volume 43, Issue 3,  2015, pp.149-157
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Mycology
  • DOI : 10.4489/KJM.2015.43.3.149
 Title & Authors
Taxonomic Characterization and Safety of Nuruk Molds Used Industrially in Korea
Hong, Seung-Beom; Hong, Sung-Yong; Jo, Kyu-Hong; Kim, Young-Sik; Do, Jong-Ho; Do, Ji-Young; Noh, Seok-Beom; Yoon, Han-Hong; Chung, Soo-Hyun;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
We examined taxonomic characteristics and safety of eight Nuruk molds that are widely used for making soybean paste, soy sauce and alcoholic beverages in Korea. HK1 from Hakyeong Fermentation Co., SW101 from Suwon Fermentation Co., CF1001, CF1002, CF1003 from Chungmoo Fermaentation Co. and KACC 93210 are yellow-Nuruk molds, and SW201 from Suwon Fermentation Co. and CF1005 from Chungmoo Fermentation Co. are white-Nuruk molds. Six strains of yellow-Nuruk molds were identified as Aspergillus oryzae. HK1, SW101, CF1001 and CF1003 of yellow-Nuruk molds have middle length of stipes (), and CF1003 (for sake) produced less conidia and more hyphae than HK1, SW101 and CF1001 (for soybean paste). CF 1002 used for soy sauce has shorter stipes () and is clustered into IBLB-group based on omtA gene analysis although the other yellow-Nuruk molds are clustered into ICAo group. KACC 93210 isolated from traditional Korean Meju has very short stipes (average ), and showed velvety colonies although the others showed floccose colonies. The strain has different DNA sequences of omtA gene from other strains in NCBI GenBank as well as strains used in Korea, suggesting that it is unique from other strains published. SW201 and CF1005 of white-Nuruk molds were identified as Aspergillus luchuensis or A. luchuensis mut. Kawachii that is known as safe, non-toxigenic fungus. The six strains of yellow-Nuruk molds did not produce mycotoxins including aflatoxin, cyclopiazonic acid, and sterigmatocystin. Therefore, eight strains of Nuruk molds used for making soy sauce, soybean paste and alcoholic beverages in Korea were proved to be safe in this study.
 Keywords
Aspergillus luchuensis;Aspergillus oryzae;Nuruk molds;Safety;Taxonomic characterization;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Hong SB, Yamada O, Samson RA. Taxonomic re-evaluation of black koji molds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014;98:555-61. crossref(new window)

2.
Murakami H. Taxonomic studies on Japanese industrial strains of the Aspergillus (Part 32). J Brew Soc Jpn 1979;74:849-53. crossref(new window)

3.
Samson RA, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Hong SB, Hubka V, Klaassen CH, Perrone G, Seifert KA, Susca A, Tanney JB, et al. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus. Stud Mycol 2014;78:141-73. crossref(new window)

4.
Glass NL, Donaldson GC. Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. App Environ Microbiol 1995;61: 1323-30.

5.
Pildain MB, Frisvad JC, Vaamonde G, Cabral D, Varga J, Samson RA. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008;58:725-35. crossref(new window)

6.
Hong SB, Lee M, Kim DH, Varga J, Frisvad JC, Perrone G, Gomi K, Yamada O, Machida M, Houbraken J, et al. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia. PLoS One 2013;28:e63769.

7.
Hong SB, Lee M, Kim DH, Chung SH, Shin HD, Samson RA. The proportion of non-aflatoxigenic strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex from Meju by analyses of the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. J Microbiol 2013; 51:766-72. crossref(new window)

8.
Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 2013;30:2725-9. crossref(new window)

9.
Tao L, Chung SH. Non-aflatoxigenicity of commercial Aspergillus oryzae strains due to genetic defects compared to aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2014;24: 1081-7. crossref(new window)

10.
Hayashi Y, Takumi Y. Analysis of cyclopiazonic acid in corn and rice by newly developed method. Food Chem 2005;93: 215-21. crossref(new window)

11.
Rank C, Nielson KF, Larsen TO, Varga J, Samson RA, Frisvad JC. Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi. Fungal Biol 2011;115:406-20. crossref(new window)

12.
Chang PK, Ehrlich KC, Hua SS. Cladal relatedness among Aspergillus oryzae isolates and Aspergillus flavus S and L morphotype isolates. Int J Food Microbiol 2006;108;172-7. crossref(new window)

13.
Kitahara K, Yoshida M. On the so-called Awamori white mold part III. (1) morphological and several physiological characteristics. J Ferment Technol 1949;27;162-6.