JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Electrochemical Oxidation of Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Interfacial Properties of Carbon Fibers-reinforced Polarized-Polypropylene Matrix Composites
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Applied Chemistry for Engineering
  • Volume 24, Issue 5,  2013, pp.476-482
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
  • DOI : 10.14478/ace.2013.24.5.476
 Title & Authors
Effects of Electrochemical Oxidation of Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Interfacial Properties of Carbon Fibers-reinforced Polarized-Polypropylene Matrix Composites
Kim, Hyun-Il; Choi, Woong-Ki; Oh, Sang-Yub; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo;
 
 Abstract
In this work, the effects of electrochemical oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces on mechanical interfacial properties of carbon fibers-reinforced polarized-polypropylene matrix composites were studied with various current densities during the treatments. Surface properties of the fibers before and after treatments were observed by SEM, AFM, XPS, and contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the composites were measured in terms of critical stress intensity factor (). From the results it was found that peaks of the fiber surfaces were strengthened after electrochemical oxidation which led to the enhancement of surface free energy of the fiber, resulting in good mechanical performance of the composites. It can be concluded that electrochemical oxidation of the carbon fiber surfaces can control the interfacial adhesion between the carbon fibers and polarized-polypropylene in this composites system.
 Keywords
electrochemical oxidation;carbon fiber;mechanical interfacial properties;surface free energy;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
1.
양극산화 처리에 따른 탄소섬유 표면의 페놀릭 하이드록실 관능기 비율의 증가가 에폭시기지 복합재료의 기계적 계면결합 특성에 미치는 영향,김동규;김관우;한웅;송범근;오상엽;방윤혁;김병주;

공업화학, 2016. vol.27. 5, pp.472-477 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
S. Yumitori and Y. Nakanishi, Effect of anodic oxidation of coal tar pitch-based carbon fiber on adhesion in epoxy matrix: part 1 comparison between $H_2SO_4$ and NaOH solution, Composites Part A, 27A, 1051 (1996).

2.
M. M. Schwartz, Composite Materials Handbook", 2nd ed., McGrawHill, NewYork (1992).

3.
W. S. Smith, Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, ASM International, Ohio (1987).

4.
J. B. Donnet and R. C. Bansal, Carbon Fibers, 2nd ed., p. 95-121, Marcel Dekker, NewYork (1990).

5.
E. Fitzer, Carbon Fibers and Their Composites, Springer, Berlin (1985).

6.
K. E. Choi and M. K. Seo, A Study on the Preparation of the Eco-friendly Carbon Fibers-Reinforced Composites, Carbon Lett., 14, 58 (2013). crossref(new window)

7.
E. Jeong, J. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. il. Kim, I. S. Han, and Y. S. Lee, New application of layered silicates for carbon fiber reinforced carbon composites, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 17, 191 (2011). crossref(new window)

8.
R. S. Bauer, Epoxy Resin Chemistry, ACS Advances in Chemistry Series No. 114, American Chemical Society, Washington DC (1979).

9.
S. J. Park, Interfacial Forces and Fields: Theory and Applications, ed. By J. P. Hsu, chap. 9, Marcel Dekker, New York (1999).

10.
A. R. Sandi and M. R. Piggott, Interfacial effects in carbon-epoxies, J. Mater. Sci., 20, 432 (1985).

11.
H. S. Schwartz and J. T. Hartness, in "Toughened Composites" (Ed. N. Johnston), ASTM STP 937, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 150 (1987).

12.
S. Motozuka, M. Tagaya, Y. Hotta, M. Morinaga, T. Ikoma, T. Honma, T. Daimon, and J. Tanaka, Mechanochemical Fabrication of Carbon Fiber/Nylon-6 Composites with Interfacial Bondings, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52, 2182 (2013). crossref(new window)

13.
S. L. Chuang, N. J. Chu, and W. T. Whang, Effect of polyamic acids on interfacial shear strength in carbon fiber/aromatic thermoplastics, J. Appl. Polymer Sci., 41, 373 (1990). crossref(new window)

14.
R. V. Subramanian et al., Electrodesposition of a Polymer Interphase in Carbon-Fiber Composites, Polym. Compos., 7, 201 (1986). crossref(new window)

15.
P. E. Vickers, J. F. Watts, C. Perruchot, and M. M. Chehimi, The surface chemistry and acid-base properties of a PAN-basedcarbon fibre, Carbon, 38, 675 (2000). crossref(new window)

16.
J. Gulya, E. Foldes, A. Lazar, and B. Pukanszky, Electrochemical oxidation of carbon fibres: surface chemistry and adhesion, Composites. Part A, 32, 353 (2001). crossref(new window)

17.
A. Fukunaga, S. Ueda, and M. Magumo, Anodic surface oxidation mechanisms of PAN-based and pitch-based carbon fibres, J. Mater. Sci., 34, 2851 (1999). crossref(new window)

18.
M. Delamar, G. Desarmot, O. Fagebaume, R. Hitmi, J. Pinson, and J. M. Savent, Modification of carbon fiber surfaces by electrochemical reduction of aryl diazonium salts: Application to carbon epoxy composites, Carbon, 35, 801 (1997). crossref(new window)

19.
M. R. Alexander and F. R. Jones, Effect of electrolytic oxidation upon the surface chemistry of type A carbon fibres-Part II, analysis of derivatised surface functionalities by XPS, and TOF SIMS, Carbon, 33, 569 (1995). crossref(new window)

20.
M. A. Montes-Moran, A. Martinez-Alonso, J. M. D. Tascon, and R. J. Young, Effects of plasma oxidation on the surface and interfacial properties of ultra-high modulus carbon fibres, Composites. Part A., 32, 361 (2001). crossref(new window)

21.
J. Li, Effect of Fiber Surface Treatment on Wear Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng., 29 (2010).

22.
M. H. Choi, B. H. Jeon, and I. J. Chung, The effect of coupling agent on electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/phenolic resin composites, Polymer, 41, 3243 (2000). crossref(new window)

23.
Y. S. Lee and B. K. Lee, Surface properties of oxyfluorinated PAN-based carbon fibers, Carbon, 40, 2461 (2002) crossref(new window)

24.
A. Fukunaga and S. Ueda, Anodic surface oxidation for pitch-based carbon fibers and the interfacial bond strengths in epoxy matrices, Compos. Sci. Technol., 60, 249 (2000). crossref(new window)

25.
C. H. Tessmer, R. D. Vidic, and L. J. Uranowski, Impact of Oxygen-Containing Surface Functional Groups on Activated Carbon Adsorption of Phenols, Environ. Sci. Tech., 31, 1872 (1997). crossref(new window)

26.
T. A. DeVilbiss, D. L. Messick, D. J. Messick, and J. P. Wightman, SEM/XPS analysis of fractured adhesively bonded graphite fibre-reinforced polyimide composites, Composites, 16, 207 (1985). crossref(new window)

27.
X. P. Yang, C. Z. Wang, Y. H. Yu, and S. K. Ryu, Improvement of CF/ABS Composite Properties by Anodic Oxidation of Pitch based C-type Carbon Fiber, Carbon. Lett., 3, 80 (2002).

28.
Y. Q. Wang, H. Viswanathan, A. A. Audi, and P. M. A. Sherwood, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Fiber Surfaces. 22. Comparison between Surface Treatment of Untreated and Previously Surface-Treated Fibers, Chem. Mater., 12, 1100 (2000). crossref(new window)

29.
H. Yildirim Erbi, Evaporation of pure liquid sessile and spherical suspended drops: A review, Adv. Colloid. Interface. Sci., 170, 67 (2012). crossref(new window)

30.
Y. S. Yu, Z. Wang, and Y. Zhao, Experimental and theoretical investigations of evaporation of sessile water droplet on hydrophobic surfaces, Adv. Colloid. Interface. Sci., 365, 254 (2012). crossref(new window)

31.
G. Viswanadam and G. G. Chase, Contact angles of drops on curved superhydrophobic surfaces, J. Colloid. Interface. Sci., 367, 472 (2012). crossref(new window)

32.
S. J. Park, J. S. Oh, and J. R. Lee, Effect of Anodized Carbon Fiber Surfaces on Mechanical Interfacial Properties of Carbon Fibers-reinforced Composites, J. Korean Soc. Comp. Mater., 15, 16 (2002).

33.
D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers, J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 13, 1741 (1969). crossref(new window)

34.
S. J. Park, M. H. Kim, J. R. Lee, and S. W. Choi, Effect of FiberPolymer Interactions on Fracture Toughness Behavior of CarbonFiber-Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites, J. Colloid. Interface. Sci., 228, 287 (2000). crossref(new window)

35.
S. B. Rho and M. A. Lim, Determination of Contact Angle and Surface Free Energy of Polymer Powder by Wicking Method, Korean. Chem. Eng. Res., 36, 215 (1998).

36.
C. J. Van Oss, R. F. Giese, Z. Li, K. Murphy, and K. Norris, M. K. Chaudhury, R. J. Good, Determination of contact angles and pore sizes of porous media by column and thin layer wicking, J. Adhesion. Sci. Technol., 6, 413 (1992). crossref(new window)

37.
S. J. Park, T. J. Kim, J. R. Lee, S. K. Hong, and Y. K. Kim, Influence of Sizing Agent on Interfacial Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber/Unsaturated Polyester Composite, Korea Polym. J., 24, 326 (2000).

38.
S. J. Park, J. S. Oh, and D. H. Suh, Influence of Ozone Treatment of Carbon Fibers on GIIC of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Composites, J. Korean Ind. Eng. Chem., 14, 586 (2003).

39.
F. M. Fowkes, Determination of interfacial tensions contact angles, and dispersion forces in surfaces by assuming additivity of intermolecular interactions in surfaces, J. Phys. Chem., 66, 382 (1962). crossref(new window)

40.
R. J. Good, in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, K. L. Mittal, ed., VSP, Utrecht, Netherlands (1993).

41.
B. J. Kim and S. J. Park, Effects of carbonyl group formation on ammonia adsorption of porous carbon surfaces, J. Colloid. Int. Sci., 311, 311 (2007). crossref(new window)

42.
A. A. Griffith, The Phenomena of Rupture and Flow in Solids, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A., 221, 163 (1920).

43.
S. J. Park, J. S. Oh, and D. H. Suh, Crack Resistance Properties of Anodized Carbon Fibers/Epoxy Matrix Composites, Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 42, 102 (2004).

44.
F. L. Jin and S. J. Park, Impact-strength improvement of epoxy resins reinforced with a biodegradable polymer, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 478, 402 (2008). crossref(new window)

45.
S. J. Park, M. K. Seo, and J. R. Lee, Roles of interfaces between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix on interlaminar fracture toughness of composites, Compos. Interf., 13, 249 (2006). crossref(new window)

46.
K. Gotoh, in Polymer Surface Modification: Relevance to Adhesion, 3, K. L. Mittal, ed., VSP, Utrecht, Netherlands (2004).