JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Functional Impairment and Executive Dysfunction of Children with Tourette Disorder : Comparison with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Non-Affected Controls
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Functional Impairment and Executive Dysfunction of Children with Tourette Disorder : Comparison with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Non-Affected Controls
Kang, Hanna; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Lee, A Reum; Kim, Shin-Gyeom; Jung, Han-Young;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine whether children with Tourette disorder (TD) have functional impairment and executive dysfunction in comparison to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-affected controls. Methods : From January 2006 to December 2013, 45 children and adolescents with TD and 50 children and adolescents with ADHD diagnosed at the Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital and 50 non-affected controls were enrolled in this study. Functional impairment of the subjects was assessed using the Child and Adolescents Functioning Impairment Scale (CAFIS), parent and teacher versions. In addition, neuropsychological tests including Stroop color-word Test, Finger windows Test (FWT), and Digit span were administered. Outcomes were compared across the TD, ADHD, and non-affected controls. Results : No difference in CAFIS-parent and CAFIS-teacher results was observed between children with TD and non-affected controls, whereas, children with ADHD showed more impairments relative to non-affected controls in the CAFIS-parent. According to the Stroop color-word Test, FWT, and Digit span, executive function in children with TD did not differ from non-affected controls. Children with ADHD had poorer performance in measures of the Stroop color-word Test compared to children with TD. Conclusion : Children and adolescents with TD but not ADHD were not significantly different from non-affected controls on most measures of functional impairment and executive function. These findings suggest that an education program and intervention for children with TD would be important to reducing the stigma of TD.
 Keywords
Functional Impairment;Executive Function;Tourette Syndrome;Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association;1994.

2.
Cooper JE. On the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Ma-nual of Mental Disorders: Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Br J Psychiatry 1995;166:4-8. crossref(new window)

3.
Erenberg G, Fahn S. Tourette Syndrome. Arch Neurol 1996;53:588.

4.
Freeman RD, Fast DK, Kent M. DSM-IV criteria for Tourette’s. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995;34:400-401. crossref(new window)

5.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed, Text Revision DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association;2000.

6.
Storch EA, Lack CW, Simons LE, Goodman WK, Murphy TK, Geffken GR. A measure of functional impairment in youth with Tourette's syndrome. J Pediatr Psychol 2007;32:950-959. crossref(new window)

7.
Conelea CA, Woods DW, Zinner SH, Budman C, Murphy T, Scahill LD, et al. Exploring the impact of chronic tic disorders on youth: results from the Tourette Syndrome Impact Survey. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2011;42:219-242. crossref(new window)

8.
Schlander M, Schwarz O, Rothenberger A, Roessner V. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample. Eur Psychiatry 2011;26:370-374.

9.
Rothenberger A, Roessner V, Banaschewski T, Leckman JF. Co-existence of tic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-recent advances in understanding and treatment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;16 Suppl 1:1-4.

10.
Cohen DJ, Friedhoff AJ, Leckman JF, Chase TN. Tourette syndrome. Extending basic research to clinical care. Adv Neurol 1992; 58:341-362.

11.
Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull 1997;121:65-94. crossref(new window)

12.
Shin MS, Chung SJ, Hong KE. Comparative study of the behavioral and neuropsychologic characteristics of tic disorder with or without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Neurol 2001;16:719-726. crossref(new window)

13.
Drury H, Channon S, Barrett R, Young MB, Stern JS, Simmons H, et al. Emotional processing and executive functioning in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome. Child Neuropsychol 2012;18: 281-298. crossref(new window)

14.
Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Greiner AR, Hoza B, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM, et al. Behavioral versus behavioral and pharmacological treatment in ADHD children attending a summer treatment program. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2000;28:507-525. crossref(new window)

15.
Lee SY, Park JH, Jung HY, Byoun SY. Reliability and validity of the child and adolescent Functioning Impairment Scale. Seoul: Pro-ceedings of the 2008 Annual meeting of the Korean Neuropsy-chiatric Association;2008.

16.
Shin MS, Park MJ. Stroop Color And Word Test. Seoul: Hakjisa; 2007.

17.
Lee SI, Lim EJ, Park JH, Jung HY. Comparison of working memory among the subtypes of child and adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Korean J Biol Psychiatry 2010;17:70-78.

18.
Kim YS, Cheon KA, Kim BN, Chang SA, Yoo HJ, Kim JW, et al. The reliability and validity of Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean version (K-SADS-PL-K). Yonsei Med J 2004;45:81-89. crossref(new window)

19.
Kwak KJ, Park JW, Kim CT. Manual for the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Seoul: Special Education;2001.

20.
Byoun SY, Lee SY, Lee YH. Functional impairment across subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;21:72-79. crossref(new window)

21.
Carter AS, O'Donnell DA, Schultz RT, Scahill L, Leckman JF, Pauls DL. Social and emotional adjustment in children affected with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: associations with ADHD and family functioning. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2000;41:215-223. crossref(new window)

22.
Ozonoff S, Strayer DL, McMahon WM, Filloux F. Inhibitory deficits in Tourette syndrome: a function of comorbidity and symptom severity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39:1109-1118. crossref(new window)

23.
Peterson BS, Pine DS, Cohen P, Brook JS. Prospective, longitudinal study of tic, obsessive-compulsive, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in an epidemiological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:685-695. crossref(new window)

24.
Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E, Coffey B, Geller D, et al. Impact of tic disorders on ADHD outcome across the life cycle: findings from a large group of adults with and without ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:611-617. crossref(new window)

25.
Yeates KO, Bornstein RA. Neuropsychological correlates of learning disability subtypes in children with Tourette’s syndrome. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 1996;2:375-382. crossref(new window)

26.
Zinner SH, Conelea CA, Glew GM, Woods DW, Budman CL. Peer victimization in youth with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2012;43:124-136. crossref(new window)