JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Airship Research and Development in the Areas of Design, Structures, Dynamics and Energy Systems
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Airship Research and Development in the Areas of Design, Structures, Dynamics and Energy Systems
Stockbridge, Casey; Ceruti, Alessandro; Marzocca, Pier;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Recent years have seen an outpour of revived interest in the use of airships for a number of applications.Present day developments in materials, propulsion, solar panels, and energy storage systems and the need for a more eco-oriented approach to flight are increasing the curiosity in airships, as the series of new projects deployed in recent years show; moreover, the exploitation of the always mounting simulation capabilities in CAD/CAE, CFD and FEA provided by modern computers allow an accurate design useful to optimize and reduce the development time of these vehicles.The purpose of this contribution is to examine the different aspects of airship development with a review of current modeling techniques for airship dynamics and aerodynamics along withconceptual design and optimization techniques, structural design and manufacturingtechnologies and, energy system technologies. A brief history of airships is presented followed by an analysis of conventional and unconventional airships including current projects and conceptual designs.
 Keywords
Airships;Design;Structures;Aerodynamics;Dynamics;Energy Systems;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Preliminary aerodynamic and static stability analysis for hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles at low speeds using digital DATCOM, Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal, 2015, 61, 3, 51  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Added masses computation for unconventional airships and aerostats through geometric shape evaluation and meshing, International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 2014, 15, 3, 241  crossref(new windwow)
3.
Heuristic Algorithms Applied to Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Unconventional Airship Configuration, Journal of Aircraft, 2014, 51, 6, 1758  crossref(new windwow)
4.
A comparison of post-stall models extended for propeller performance prediction, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 2016, 88, 4, 540  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Stockbridge, C.M., "Stability and Control of Unconventional Airships, Design and Experimental Investigations," MS Thesis, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department, Clarkson University, Potsdam NY, 2012.

2.
Ardema, M.R., "Airship", AccessScience, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2008, URL: http://www.accessscience.com[cited 8 May 2012]

3.
ORACLE ThinkQuest Education Foundation, "Nonrigid Airships", 2005, URL:http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01843/[cited 8 May 2012]

4.
Nobile, U., "Semi-Rigid v. Rigid Airships", FLIGHT, January 22, 1922.

5.
Bloetscher, F., "Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, Phase I, Final Report, Vol. 1, Summary and Mission Analysis", NASA CR-137692, 1975.

6.
Faurote, G.L., "Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, Phase I, Final Report, Vol. 111, Historical Overview", NASA CR-137692(3), 1975.

7.
Jones, B., Grant, D., Rosenstein, H., and Schneider, J., "Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, Final Report, Phase I, Vol. I", NASA CR-137691, 1975.

8.
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation, "Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, Phase 11, Vol. 11, Airport Feeder Vehicle", NASA CR-151920, 1976.

9.
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation, "Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, Phase 11, Executive Summary", NASA CR-2922, 1977.

10.
Huston, R.R., and Ardema, M.D., "Feasibility of Modern Airships, Design Definition and Performance of Selected Concepts", 13thAnnual Meeting and Technical Display Incorporating the Forum on the Future of Air Transportation, Washington, D.C., January 1977.

11.
Ardema, M.D., "Feasibility of Modern Airships - Preliminary Assessment", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 14, No. 11, 1977, pp. 1140-1148. crossref(new window)

12.
Carson, B.H., "An Economic Comparison of Three Heavy Lift Airborne Systems", Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Lighter Than Air Vehicles, University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1975, pp. 75-85.

13.
Defense Industry Daily, "Walrus/HULA Heavy-Lift Blimps Rise, Fall Rise?" URL: http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/walrus-heavylift-blimpgetting-off-the-ground-01103[cited 30 Dec. 2009]

14.
Skillings, J., "Boeing touts heli-blimp for heavy lifting", URL: CNET News.com [cited 9 July 2008]

15.
Ardema, M.D., "Vehicle Concepts and Technology Requirements for Buoyant Heavy-Lift Systems", Ames Research Center, NASA Technical Paper 1921, 1981.

16.
Naujokas, J., "Boeing Teams with Canadian Firm to Build Heavy-Lift Rotorcraft", URL:http://www.boeing. com/news/releases/2008/q3/080708c1_pr.html [cited 8 May 2012]

17.
"Aeroscraft", Aeros. 2011, URL: http://www.aerosml.com/imagegallery.html [cited 8 May 2012]

18.
"The Airship "SkyFreighter"", Millennium Air Ship Inc., URL: http://www.millenniumairship.com/products.htm [cited 8 May 2012]

19.
Chen, L., An, J., and Yang, C., "Exploring some key problems in modeling a stratospheric airship", Journal of Northwestern Polytechnical University, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2007, pp. 387-391.

20.
Jin, O., Qu, W., and Xi, Y., "Stratospheric verifying airship modeling and analysis", Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2003, pp. 956-960.

21.
Chen, W., Xiao, W., Kroplin, B., and Kunze, A., "Structural performance evaluation procedure for large flexible airship of HALE stratospheric platform conception", Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Vol. 12E, No. 2, 2007, pp. 293-300.

22.
Wang, H., Song, B., Liu, B., and An, W., "Exploring configuration design of high altitude airship", XibeiGongyeDaxueXuebao (Journal of Northwestern Polytechnical University), Vol. 25, No. 1, 2007, pp. 56-60.

23.
Eguchi, K., Yokomaku, Y., and Mori, M., "Overview of Stratospheric Platform Airship R&D Program in Japan", 14th Lighter-Than-Air Technical Committee Convention & Exhibition, Akron, OH, July 2001.

24.
Perry, W.D., "Sentinel in the Sky: An autonomous airship offers long-duration, high-altitude capabilities", Technology Today, 2010.

25.
Boyle, A., "Airship groomed for flight to edge of space" URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5025388/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/airship-groomedflight-edge-space/#.T5VI59W3OW8 [cited 15 May 2012]

26.
Fink, D., "Hybrid heavy lift vehicle under study", Aviation Week, July 1974.

27.
Allen, D., "Beautiful Concept Airship Looks 85 Years into the Future", Gizmodo, URL: http://gizmodo.com/wb_1010-klm-design-competition/[cited 15 May 2012]

28.
Justa, A., "Amazing futuristic airships for sustainable air travel", Green Diary, URL:http://www.greendiary.com/entry/amazing-futuristic-airships-for-sustainable-airtravel/[cited 15 May 2012]

29.
Harrison, J., "Lockheed's LEMV Consolation", URL: http://edgefighter.com/2010/06/17/lockheeds-lemvconsolation/[ cited 8 May 2012]

30.
Schwartz, A., "Flying Sailboat Soars Through the Sky On Solar Power", URL: http://inhabitat.com/flying-sailboatsoars- through-the-sky-on-solar-power/[cited 15 May 2012]

31.
Lamb, H., "The inertia-coefficients of an ellipsoid moving in a fluid", Reports and Memoranda, No. 623, October, 1918.

32.
Tuckerman, L. B., "Notes on Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls", Naca report, No. 129, 1923.

33.
Tuckerman, L. B., "Inertia Factors of Ellipsoids for use in Airship Design", Naca report, No. 210, 1926.

34.
Blakemore, T.L., and Watters Pagon, W., Pressure Airship, University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2003.

35.
Burgess, C.P., Airship Design, University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2004.

36.
United States War Department, Airship Aerodynamics: Technical Manual, University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2003.

37.
Konstantinov, L., "The Basics of Gas and Heat Airship Theory", Montgolfier, Aeroplast, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2003.

38.
Lutz, T., and Wagner, S., "Drag Reduction and Shape Optimization of Airship bodies", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1998, pp. 345-351. crossref(new window)

39.
Khoury, G.A., and Gillet, J.D., Airship Technology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.

40.
Raymer D., "Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, Fourth Edition", AIAA Education Series, AIAA, Reston, VA, 2006.

41.
Ramos, J.J.G, Maeta, S.M., Bergerman, M., Bueno, S.S., Mirisola, L.G.B., and Bruciapaglia, A., "Development of a VRML/Java Unmanned Airship Simulating Environment", IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Kyongju, Korea, October 1999.

42.
Mueller, J.B., Zhao, Y., and Paluszek, M., "Development of an Aerodynamic Model and Control Law Design for a High-Altitude Airship", AIAA Unmanned Unlimited Conference, Chicago, IL, September2004.

43.
Wei, Y., Yong, L., Wenjun, W., and Wei, Z., "Stratospheric airship optimization method and design parameters sensitivity analysis", Journal of Astronautics, Vol.28, No.6, 2007, pp. 1524-1528.

44.
Nickol, C.L., Guynn, M.D., Kohout, L., and Ozoroski, T.A., "High altitude long endurance air vehicle analysis of alternatives and technology requirements development", 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Vol. 18, 2007, pp. 12653-12669.

45.
Yu, D., and Lu, X., "Configurations analysis for highaltitude/ long-endurance airships", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 82, No. 1, 2010, pp. 48-59. crossref(new window)

46.
Chen, Q., Zhu, M., and Sun, K., "Analysis to Effects on Conceptual Parameters of Stratospheric Airship with Specified Factors", Journal of Computers, Vol. 6, No.5, 2011, pp. 1055-1062.

47.
Ram, C.V., and Pant, R., "Multi-disciplinary Shape Optimization of Aerostat Envelopes", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 47, Issue3, 2010, pp. 1073-1076. crossref(new window)

48.
Khoury, G.A., Airship Technology Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2012.

49.
Miller, J.I., and Hahon, M., "Analysis and Design of Robust Helium Aerostats", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1447-1458. crossref(new window)

50.
Gupta, P., "A multi-chamber. multi gas configuration for robust and high performance nonrigid airship", 8th International Airship Convention, Bedford, England, October 2010.

51.
Burgess, C.P., "The Strength of Rigid Airships", Journal of Royal Aeronautical Society, Vol. 28, No. 162, 1924, pp. 327-448.

52.
Hess, T.E., "Structures Technology for Lighter- Than-Air Vehicles", Department of the Navy: Naval Air Development Center, Air Vehicle Technology Department, Technical Memorandum No. VT-TM-1891, March 1977.

53.
Liao, L., and Pasternak, I., "A review of airship structural research and development", Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 4-5, 2009, pp. 83-96. crossref(new window)

54.
Althoff, W.F., USS Los Angeles: The Navy's Venerable Airship and Aviation Technology, Potomac Books Inc., Washington, D.C., 2004.

55.
Burgess, C.P., "Forces on Airships in Gusts", Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department. Report No. 204, 1924.

56.
Evans, J.R., and DeLaurier, J.D., "The Shenandoah flies again: a computer simulation", AIAA lighter-than-air systems technology conference, Annapolis, MD, July 1981.

57.
Yuwen, L., Nahon, M., and Sharf, I., "Airship dynamics modeling: A literature review", Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2011, pp. 217-239. crossref(new window)

58.
Brewer, W.H., "Lighter-Than-Air Structural Design Techniques for Near Term Applications", AIAA Lighter Than Air Technology Conference, Snowmass, CO, July 1975.

59.
Burgess, C.P., "The Longitudinal Strength of Rigid Airships", Bureau of Aeronautics, Memo No. 361, July 1944.

60.
Li, Y., Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Flexible Airships, McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, Canada, 2008.

61.
Hunt, J.D., "Structural Analysis of Aerostat Flexible Structure by the Finite Element Method", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 19, No. 9, 1982, pp. 674-678. crossref(new window)

62.
Hunt, J.D., "Structural Analysis of the Light Weight Hard Nose on the 71M Aerostat", 10th AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technical Conference, Scottsdale, AZ, September 1993.

63.
Smith, Jr., F.A., "Advanced Finite Element Analysis for the Skyhook-Boeing HLV Aircraft", 2009 SIMULIA Customer Conference, London, England, 2009.

64.
Bessert, N., and Frederich, O., "Nonlinear airship aeroelasticity", Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2005, pp.731-742. crossref(new window)

65.
Mandel, M., and Tim, M., "Airship Envelopes: Requirements, Materials and Test Methods", URL: https://imageserv5.teamlogic.com/mediaLibrary/93/Airship_Envelopes_Requirements__Materials_and_Test_Methods.pdf[cited 15 May 2012]

66.
Petrusso, A., "Airship- How products are made", URL: http://www.madehow.com/Volume3/Airship.html[cited 15 May 2012]

67.
Kang, W., Suh, Y., Woo, K., and Lee, I. "Mechanical property characterization of film- fabric laminate for stratospheric airship envelope", Composite Structures, Vol. 75, No. 1-4, 2006, pp. 151-155. crossref(new window)

68.
McDaniels, K., Downs, R.J., Meldner, H., Beach, C., and Adams, C., "High Strength to Weight Ratio Non-Woven Technical Fabrics for Aerospace Applications", Cubic Tech Corp., Mesa, AZ, 2009.

69.
Gordon, W.O., and Holland, C., "Back to the Future: Airships and the Revolution in Strategic Airlift", Air Force Journal of Logistics, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2005, pp. 47-58.

70.
Ghanmi, A., and Abderrahmane, S., "Airships for military logistics heavy lift", Canadian Operational Support Command Operational Research & Analysis, DRDC CORA TM 2010-011, January 2010.

71.
Linner, M., "Hydrogen and Helium", American Chemical Society, Lakehurst, NJ, May 1937.

72.
Jones, R., Williams, D.H., and Bell, A.H., "Experiments on a Model of the Airship R.29", ARC RM-714, London, HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 1920.

73.
Jones, R., and Bell, A.H., "Experiments on a Model of the Airship R.101", ARC RM-1168, London, HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 1926.

74.
Pannel, J.R, and Jones, R., "Experiments on a Model of the German Rigid Airship L33, " ARC RM-361, London, HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 1917.

75.
Freeman, H.B., "Measurements of Flow in the Boundary Layer of a 1/40-Scale Model of the U.S. Airship 'Akron'", NACA TR-430, Langley Field, VA, April1932.

76.
Freeman, H.B., "Force Measurements on a 1/40-Scale Model of the U.S. Airship Akron", NACA TR-432, Langley Field, VA, May1932.

77.
Freeman, H.B., "Pressure Distribution Measurements on the Hull and Fins of a 1/40 Scale Model of the U. S. Airship Akron", NACA TR-443, Langley Field, VA, June1932.

78.
Silverstein, A., and Gulick, B.G., "Ground-handling Forces on a 1/40-Scale Model of the U. S. Airship 'Akron'", NACA TR-566, Langley Field, VA, April1936.

79.
McHugh, J.G., "Pressure-distribution Measurements at Large Angles of Pitch on Fins of Different Span Chord Ratio on a 1/40-scale Model of the U. S. Airship 'Akron'", NACA TR-604, Langley Field, VA, April1937.

80.
Zahm, A.F., "Air Forces, Moments and Damping on Model of Fleet Airship Shenandoah", NACA TR-215, U.S. Government Printing Office, January1926.

81.
Pannell, J.R., and Frazer, R.A., "Account of Some Experiments on Rigid Airship R.26", ARC RM-674, Langley Field, VA, January1920.

82.
Pannell, J. R., and Bell, A.H., "Experiments on Rigid Airship R.29", ARC RM-675, Langley Field, VA, January 1920.

83.
Pannell, J. R., and Frazer, R.A., "Experiments on Rigid Airship R.33", ARC RM-668, Langley Field, VA, 1919.

84.
Bailey, D.B., "Patrol Airship Concept Evaluation (PACE)", Final Report, NADC-85019-60, Warminster, Pa, March1985.

85.
Jex, H.R., and Gelhausen, P., "Pre- and post-flight-test models versus measured skyship-500 control responses", 7th AIAA lighter-than-air technology conference, Monterey, CA, August 1987.

86.
Munk, M.M., "The aerodynamic forces on airship hulls", NACA TR-184, Springfield, VA, January1924.

87.
Allen, H.J., and Perkins, E.W., "A Study of Effects of Viscosity on Flow over Slender Inclined Bodies of Revolution", NACA TR-1048, Moffett Field, CA, August1951.

88.
Hopkins, E.J., "A Semi-empirical Method for Calculating the Pitching Moment of Bodies of Revolution at Low Mach Numbers", NACA RM-A51C14, Moffett Field, CA, May1951.

89.
Jones, S.P., and DeLaurier, J.D., "Aerodynamic Estimation Techniques for Aerostats and Airships, "Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1983, pp. 120-126. crossref(new window)

90.
Lutz, Th., and Wagner, S., "Drag Reduction and Shape Optimization of Airship Bodies", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1998, pp. 345-351. crossref(new window)

91.
Lutz, Th., and Wager, S., "Numerical Shape Optimization of Natural Laminar Flow Bodies", 21st Congress of International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Melbourne, Australia, September 1998.

92.
Nejati, V., and Matsuuchi, K., "Aerodynamics Design and Genetic Algorithms for Optimization of Airship Bodies", JSME International Journal, Series B, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2003, pp. 610-617. crossref(new window)

93.
El Omari, K., Schall, E., Koobus, B., and Dervieux, A., "TURBULENCE MODELING CHALLENGES IN AIRSHIP CFD STUDIES", Monografías del SeminarioMatematicoGarcía de Galdeano, No. 31, 2004, pp. 545-554.

94.
Wang, X.-L., Ma, Y., and Shan, X.-X., "Modeling of Stratosphere Airship", Advances in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics., Vol. 2, No. 3, 2009, pp. 123 - 142.

95.
Cook, M.V., "The linearized small perturbation equations of motion for an airship", College of Aeronautics Reports, WP8, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Cranfield, UK, January1990.

96.
Cook, M.V., Lipscombe, J.M., and Goineau, F., "Analysis of the stability modes of the non-rigid airship", The Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 104, No. 1036, 2000, pp. 279-290.

97.
Kornienko, A., "System identification approach for determining flight dynamical characteristics of an airship from flight data", PhD thesis, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 2006.

98.
Yamasaki, T., and Goto, N., "Identification of blimp dynamics via flight tests", Transactions of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 153, 2003, pp. 195-295. crossref(new window)

99.
Mueller, J., "Guidance, Navigation and Control of High- Altitude Airships", Princeton Satellite Systems Inc., Princeton, NJ, 2006.