JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Comparison of Soil Physical Properties in Conventional and Organic Farming Apple Orchards
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Comparison of Soil Physical Properties in Conventional and Organic Farming Apple Orchards
Chung, Jong-Bae;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Soil physical properties in organic farming apple orchard were evaluated in relation to conventional farming to better understand the effects of organic farming system on soil quality. Two adjacent apple orchards, matched by soil type, were chosen to ensure the same pedological conditions except management system. Soil samples were collected from middle of two adjacent trees along the tree line at two depths of 5-20 and 20-35 cm in September 2006. Contents of organic matter in organic farming soil were twice as much as those found in soil of conventional farming. The higher level of organic matter in organic farming soil was reflected through a consequent trend in improved soil physical properties. Organic farming produced greater aggregation in >2 mm size and increased aggregate stability. Bulk density was lower by 13% and hence porosity was higher in soils of organic farming as compared with conventional farming. Water holding capacity was significantly greater with organic farming by >17% over conventional farming. The capacity of organic farming to improve soil physical properties can be contributed to the regular application of relatively large amount of organic materials and the sustainable ground-cover managements, mulching with compost and cover crop cultivation.
 Keywords
apple orchard;organic farming;organic matter;soil physical property;soil quality;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Pacini, C. A., Wossink, A., Gisen, G., Vazzanna, C. and Huine, R. (2003) Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: A farm and field-scale analysis, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 95, 273-288 crossref(new window)

2.
Bronick, C. J. and Lal, R. (2005) Soil structure and management: A review, Geoderma 124, 3-22 crossref(new window)

3.
Mikha, M. M. and Rice, C. W. (2004) Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate associated carbon and nitrogen, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 809-816 crossref(new window)

4.
Vogtmann, H. (1984) Organic farming practices and research in Europe, In Kral, D. M. et al. (ed.) Organic farming: Current technology and its role in a sustainable agriculture, ASA Special Publication No. 46, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA, p. 19-36

5.
Hatfield, J. L. and Karlen, D. L. (1994) Sustainable agriculture system, Lewis Publishes, Boca Raton, FL, USA

6.
Gerhardt, R. A. (1997) A comparative analysis of the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on soil structure, BioI. Agric. Hart. 14, 139-157 crossref(new window)

7.
Liebig, M. A. and Doran, J. W. (1999) Impact of organic production practices on soil quality indicators, J. Environ. Qual. 28, 1601-1609 crossref(new window)

8.
Carter, M. R. (2002) Soil quality for sustainable land management: Organic matter and aggregation interactions that maintain soil functions, Agron. J. 94, 38-47 crossref(new window)

9.
Marinari, S., Mancinelli, R, Campiglia, E. and Grego, S. (2006) Chemical and biological indicators of soil quality in organic and conventional farming systems in Central Italy, Ecol. Indicators 6, 701-711 crossref(new window)

10.
Melero, S., Porras, J. C. R., Herencia, J. F. and Madejon, E. (2006) Chemical and biochemical properties in a silty loam soil under conventional and organic management, Soil Tillage Res. 90, 162-170 crossref(new window)

11.
Tejada, M., Hernandez, M. T. and Garcia, C. (2006) Application of two organic amendments on soil restoration: Effects on the soil biological properties, J. Environ. Qual. 35, 1010-1017 crossref(new window)

12.
Martini, E. A., Buyer, J. S., Bryant, D. C., Hartz, T. K. and Denison, R. F. (2004) Yield increases during the organic transition: improving soil quality or increasing experience? Field Crop. Res. 86, 255-266 crossref(new window)

13.
Marriott, E. E. and Wander, M. M. (2006) Total and labile soil inorganic matter in organic and conventional farming systems, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70, 950-959 crossref(new window)

14.
Darwish, O. H., Persaud, N. and Martens, D. C. (1995) Effect of long-term application of animal manure on physical properties of three soils, Plant Soil 176, 289-295 crossref(new window)

15.
Barzegar, A. R., Yousefi, A. and Daryashenas, A. (2002) The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat, Plant Soil 247, 295-301 crossref(new window)

16.
Schjenning, P., Elmholt, S., Munkholm, L. J. and Debosz, K. (2002) Soil quality aspects of humid sandy loams as influenced by organic and conventional long-term management, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 88, 195-214 crossref(new window)

17.
Zaller, J. G. and Kopke, U. (2004) Effects of traditional and biodynamic farmyard manure amendment on yields, soil chemical, biochemical and biological properties in a long-term experiment, BioI. Fertil. Soils 40, 222-229

18.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter, In Page, A. L. et al. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wl, USA, p. 539-579

19.
Haynes, R. J. (1993) Effect of sample pretreatment on aggregate stability measured by wet sieving or turbidimetry on soils of different cropping history, J. Soil Sci. 44, 261-270 crossref(new window)

20.
Piccolo, A. and Mbagwu, J. S. C. (1999) Role of hydrophobic components of soil organic matter in soil aggregate stability, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63, 1801-1810 crossref(new window)

21.
SAS Institute. (1995) SAS/EIs software reference (2nd ed.) SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA

22.
Pimentel, D., Hepperly, P., Hanson, J., Douds, D. and Seidel, R. (2005) Environmental, energetic, and economic comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems, BioScience 55, 573-582 crossref(new window)

23.
Lee, Y. J., Choi, D. H., Kim, S. H., Lee, S. M., Lee, Y. H., Lee, B. M. and Kim, T. W. (2004) Longterm changes in soil chemical properties in organic arable farming systems in Korea, Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 37, 228-234

24.
Zibilske, L. M. and Bradford, J. M. (2007) Soil aggregation, aggregate carbon and nitrogen, and moisture retention induced by conservation tillage, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71, 793-802 crossref(new window)

25.
Mader, P., Fliebach, A, Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P. and Niggli, U. (2002) Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming, Science 296, 1694-1697 crossref(new window)

26.
Oades, J. M. (1984) Soil organic matter and structural stability mechanisms and implications for management, Plant Soil 76, 319-337 crossref(new window)

27.
Arshad, M. A., Lowery, B. and Grossman, B. (1996) Physical tests for monitoring soil quality, In Doran, J. W. and Jones, A. J. (ed.) Methods for assessing soil quality, SSSA Special Publication No. 49, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA, p. 123-142

28.
Oliveira, M. T. and Merwin, I. A. (2001) Soil physical conditions in a New York orchard after eight years under different ground-cover management systems, Plant Soil 234, 233-237 crossref(new window)