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Geographical Distribution of Diving Beetles (Dytiscidae) in Korean Paddy Ecosystem
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 Title & Authors
Geographical Distribution of Diving Beetles (Dytiscidae) in Korean Paddy Ecosystem
Han, Min-Su; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Bang, Hea-Son; Na, Young-Eun; Lee, Deog-Bae; Kang, Kee-Kyung;
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BACKGROUND: The paddy ecosystem is periodically disturbed with a relatively consistent cycle in short term. However, in long term aspect, the paddy as habitats of organisms has been affected by the change in farming practices. Accordingly, the composition and their densities of fauna species inhabiting the wet paddy has been changed. The geological distribution of a species is very helpful to understand the past and current status of habitats and biodiversity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We monitored 290 sites of open plain paddy or terraced valley paddy located in 138 cities or counties of South Korea and analyzed examine geological distribution of a taxon of freshwater invertebrates, diving beetles (Dytiscidae) which inhabited the paddy ecosystem. This survey was conducted from 2005 through 2007. The total species of diving beetles found in the paddy were identified to be 15 genus 26 species among the family of Dytiscidae. Among them, 24 species were found in the terraced valleys-in paddy fields, and 19 species were found in the open plain paddy fields. Eleven species of them were rarely found in the paddy. The average body size of the adult diving beetles of each species was between 2.0 and 35.0 mm. Most of the diving beetle species except for 11 species with rare frequency of occurrence were found in almost all sites of the terraced valley paddy fields but three species (Agabus browni, Agabus japnicus, and Ilybius apicalis) were not found in the open plain paddy fields. The species distributed relatively widely over some sites of the open plain paddy fields were Guignotus japonicus, and Rhantus pulverosus. Specifically, Ilybius apicalis was found in a specific region, the east-southern part of Korean peninsula, whereas Coelambus chinensis was found only in valley paddy field of the region where Ilybius apicalis was not found. Overall distribution range of diving beetles in open plain paddy fields was limited to few area than in terraced valley paddy fields. CONCLUSION(s): The differences in the range of distribution of diving beetles between terraced valley paddy fields and open plain paddy fields was thought to be the result of an complex action of physico-chemical environments such as annual water status and the degree of chemical application involving differences in the extent of disturbance of the paddy ecosystem, the connectivity of the paddy to an adjacent biotope, and interrelationships among competitors.
Diving beetle;Dytiscidae;Geographical distribution;Paddy field;
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