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Persistence of the Insecticide Clothianidin in Paddy and Upland Soils
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 Title & Authors
Persistence of the Insecticide Clothianidin in Paddy and Upland Soils
Choi, Young-Joon; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok; Yun, Tae-Yong; Lee, Young-Deuk;
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BACKGROUND: The current study purposed to analyse the dissipation levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide and clothianidin in paddy and upland soils and clarify the effects of soil moisture on degradation and persistence of the insecticide. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to achieve the research purposes, clothianidin 8% SG was applied to the paddy and upland fields at the rate of 0.024 kg a.i./10a, while the analytical standard was treated at 0.25 mg/kg soil under laboratory conditions. Based on the multiple first-order kinetics, total clothianidin in soils was dissipated with of 6.7-16.1 and 6.9-8.2 days in the paddy and upland fields, respectively, whereas the figures under the laboratory condition became larger showing 56.3 and 19.6 days. CONCLUSION: As affected by soil moisture, some differences in degradative pathways were observed. Flooding of soil caused evidently demethylation and delayed cyclization of a major metabolite, thiazolylmethylguanidine (TMG) and methylaminoimidazole(MAI), compared to the aerobic upland condition. More than 80% and 50% of the parent compound was dissipated by the 24th day after the final application in both soils and, transformation products had constituted most of soil residues after that.
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