Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Experimental infection of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and its treatment with carvacrol and cymene mixture
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Journal of fish pathology
  • Volume 28, Issue 3,  2015, pp.145-155
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Fish Pathology
  • DOI : 10.7847/jfp.2015.28.3.145
 Title & Authors
Experimental infection of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and its treatment with carvacrol and cymene mixture
Korni, Fatma Mostafa Mohamed;
  PDF(new window)
The pathogenecity of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida was studied in healthy Oreochromis niloticus. Inoculum at concentration of and was injected into healthy fish through intramuscular and intraperitoneal injections. Experimentally infected Oreochromis niloticus showed ulceration at the dorsal musculature and trunk region in addition to black coloration, congested gills, exophthalmia, and ocular hemorrhage. Congested liver and kidney were recorded in post-mortem examination. Mortality of the experimentally infected Oreochromis niloticus reached 100% after intramuscular injection at concentration of . Histopathological investigation of infected organs was also performed. There was a focal area of bundles of skeletal musculature showing hyalinization. In addition, hyperplasia, congestion, and fusion were noticed in the gill lamellae. There was also congestion in the blood vessels in the ocular chamber. Severe congestion was also noticed in the central vein of liver associated with focal aggregation of the melanin pigmented cells in the parenchyma. Degenerative changes were noticed in the epithelial cells lining of kidney tubules. Plant extracts carvacrol and its biological precursor cymene were found to be effective in treating experimentally infected Oreochromis niloticus at concentration of 100 or 200 ppm.
Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida;Oreochromis niloticus;Pathogenecity;Intramuscular;Intraperitoneal;Carvacrol;Cymene;
 Cited by
Anwar, N., M. Bayleyegn and Y. Eshetu (2012): Occurrenceand distribution of bacterial pathogens of fishin the southern gulf of Lake Tana, Bahir Dar,Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development.

Austin, B. and D. A. Austin (1993): Bacterial fish pathogens, disease in farmed and wild fish. 2nd Ed., Ellis Horwood, UK, 208-226.

Banchroft, J. D., A. Stevens and D. R. Turner (1996): Theory and practice of Histological Techniques. 4th Ed. Churchil Livingstone, NewYork, London, San Francisco, Tokyo.

Bohm, K. H., H. Fuhrmann, H. J. W. Schlotfeldt and W. Korting (1986): Aeromonas salmonicida from salmonids and cyprinids serological and cultural identification. J. Vet. Med. 33: 777-783.

Boomker, J., M. M. Henton, T. W. Naude and F. W. Hunchzermeyer (1984): Furunculosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) raised in sea water. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 51: 91-94.

Burt, S. (2004): Essential oils, their antimicrobial properties and potential applications in foods. A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94: 223-253. crossref(new window)

Chami, N., S. Bennis, F. Chami, A. Aboussekhra and A. Remmal (2005): Study of anticandidal activity of carvacrol and euglenol in vitro and in vivo. Oral Microbiol. and Immunol. 20: 106-111. crossref(new window)

Dalsgaard, I., H. Paulsen (1986): Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from diseased sand-eels. Ammodytes lanced (Cuvier) and Hyperoplus lanceolatus (Lesauvege). J. Fish Dis. 9: 361-364. crossref(new window)

Dalsgaard, I., B. K. Gudmundsdottir, S. Helgason, S. Hole, O. E. Thoresen, U. P. Wichardt and T. Wiklund (1998): Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida: inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84: 999-1006. crossref(new window)

Desousa, J. P., G. A. Deazeredo, T. R. Dearaujo, V. Dasilva, M.L.M. Daconceicao, and E. l. Desouza (2012): Synergies of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole to inhibit bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables. Int.HYPERLINK "" J. Food HYPERLINK ""Microbio lHYPERLINK "". 3: 145-51.

Friedman, M., P. R. Henika and R. E. Mandrell (2002): Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coil, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enteric. J. Food Prot. 65: 1545-1560. crossref(new window)

Fatma, M. M. K. (2012): Edwardsiellosis in some freshwater fishes. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Vet. Med., Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Groman, D., D. Tveedie and D. Shaw (1992): Experiences with atypical furunculosis in Newfoundland: an overview. Bull Aquacul .Assoc. Can. 1: 36-39.

Guamundsdottir, B. K., B. Magnadottir, H. Jonsdottir, S. Guamundsdottir, S. Helgason and G. Jonsson (1995): Atypical furunculosis in Icelandic aquaculture. Abstracts book, European Association of Fish Pathologists, Seventh International Conference 'Diseases of fish and shellfish', Palma de Mallorca.

Hashiem, M. and M. A. A. Abd El-Galil (2012): Studies on Edwardsiellosis in Clarias Gariepinus Fish at Sohag Governorate. J. Am. Sci. 8: 438-444.

HOlE, S., M. HEUM and O. E. THORESEN (1996): Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida by polymerase chain reaction in Atlantic salmon vaccinated against furunculosis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 6: 199-206. crossref(new window)

H0IE, S, I. DALSGAARD, I. A. LISE, H. MARIANNE, M. T. JACINTA, and P. RICHARD (1999): Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based Typing Analysis of Atypical Isolates of the Fish Pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. System. Appl. Microbial. 22: 403-411. crossref(new window)

Hellberg, H., E. Moksness and S. Heie (1996): Infection with atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in farmed common wolffish, Anarhichas lupus L. J. Fish Dis 19: 329-332. crossref(new window)

Hirvela-Koski, V., P. Koski and H. Niiranen (1994): Biochemical properties and drug resistance of Aeromonas salmonicida in Finland. Dis. Aquat. Org. 20: 191-196.

Humphrey, J. D. and L. D. Ashburner (1993): Spread of the bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida after importation of infected goldfish, Carassius auratus, into Australia. Australian Vet. J. 70: 453-454. crossref(new window)

Jeney, Z. and G. Jeney (1995): Recent achievements in studies on diseases of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Aquaculture 129: 397-373. crossref(new window)

Kisko, G. and S. Roller (2005): Carvacrol and cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice. BMC Microbiol. 5: 36. crossref(new window)

Larsen, J. L. and K. Pedersen (1996): Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from diseased turbot (Scophtalmus maximus L.). Acta. Vet. Scand. 37: 139-146.

Lim, C. and C. D. Webster (2006): Tilapia: Biology, Culture and nutrition Routledge. ISBN 978156022314.

Lindberg, C. M., A. P. Melathhopoulos and M. L. Winston (2000): Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite. Economic and Entomol. 93: 189-198. crossref(new window)

Mawdesley-Thomas, L. E. (1969): Furunculosis in the goldfish Carassius auratus (L.). J. Fish Biol. 1: 19-23. crossref(new window)

Mirle, V. C., H. Bocklisch, A. Engelhardt, K. Freudenberg and R. Hiltner (1986): Studies into aetiology of erythrodermatitis of carp. Mh Vet-Med 41559-562.

Panella, N. A., M. C. Dolan, J. J. Karchesy, Y. Xiong, J. Peralta-Cruz,; Khasawneh, M., J. A. Montenieri and G.O. Maupin (2005): Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar. Medical Entomol. 42: 352-358. crossref(new window)

Parker, R. and R. O. Parker (2011): Aquaculture Science, Pages 123-128, Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781435488120.

Pedersen, K., Kofod H., Dalsgaard, 1. and J. L. Larsen (1994): Isolation of oxidase-negative Aeromonas salmonlcida from diseased turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Dis. Aquat. Org. 18: 149-15. crossref(new window)

Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and P. Phumkhachorn (2010): Assessment of synergistic efficacy of carvacrol and cymene against Edwardsiella tarda in vitro and in Tilapia (Tilapia species). African Microbiol. Res. 4: 420-425.

Ultee, A., R. A. Slump, G. Steging and E. J. Smid (2000): Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice. J. Food Prot. 63: 620-624. crossref(new window)

Ultee, A. and E. J. Smid (2001): Influence of carvacrol on growth and toxin production by Bacillus cereus. International Food Microbiol. 64: 373-378. crossref(new window)

Ultee, A., M. H. J. Bennik, and R. Moezelar (2002): The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 1561-1568. crossref(new window)

Whittington, R. J., S. P. Djordjevic, J. Carson, R. B. Callinan (1995): Restriction endonuclease analysis of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from goldfish Carassius auratus, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, and greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina in Australia. Dis. Aquat. Org. 22: 1.85-191. crossref(new window)

Wiklund, T. and G. Bylund (1993): Skin ulcer disease of flounder, Platichthys flesus in the northern Baltic Sea. Dis. Aquat. Org. 17: 165-174. crossref(new window)

Wiklund, T., I. Dalsgaard, E. Eerola and G. Olivier (1994): Characteristics of 'atypical', cytochrome oxidase-negative Aeromonas salnionicida isolated from ulcerated flounders (Platichthys flesus (L.). J. Appl. Bacteriol. 76: 511-520. crossref(new window)

Wiklund, T. (1995): virulence of 'atypical' Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from ulcerated flounder Platichthys flesus. Dis. aquat. Org. 21: 145-150. crossref(new window)

Wiklund, T. and I. Dalsgaard (1995): Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida associated with ulcerated flatfish species in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 7: 218-224. crossref(new window)

Wiklund, L. T. and N. Dalsgaar (1998): Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species. Dis. Aquat. Org. 32: 49-69. crossref(new window)

Wilson, B. W., A. Holliman (1994): Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from ulcerated chub Leuciscus cephaljs. Vet. Rec. 135: 185-186. crossref(new window)

Zheng, Z. L., Y. W. Justin, and H. Y. L. Tan (2011): Evaluation of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on growth, antioxidant effect andresistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aqua. Res. 35: 494-500.