JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous Magmatism in Eastern China and the Gyeongsang Basin, Korean Peninsula
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous Magmatism in Eastern China and the Gyeongsang Basin, Korean Peninsula
Choi, Sung Hi;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Geochemical characteristics of the Early Cretaceous igneous rocks from eastern China and the Gyeongsang Basin, Korean Peninsula has been summarized. They have wide range of lithological variation with extrusive picrite-basalt-andesite-trachyte-rhyolite and lamprophyre, and intrusive gabbro-diorite-monzonite-syenite-granite and diabase in eastern China, mostly belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline or shoshonitic series. The volcanic rocks intercalated with the Hayang Group sedimentary assemblages in the Gyeongsang basin are high-K to shoshonitic basaltic trachyandesites. The Early Cretaceous basaltic rocks studied mostly fall within the field of within-plate basalts on the Zr/Y-Zr and Nb-Zr-Y tectonic discrimination diagrams. On a Sr-Nd isotope correlation diagram, basaltic rocks from the North China block (NCB) and the continent-continent collision zone (CZ) between the North and South China blocks plot into the enriched lower right quadrant along the extension of the mantle array. The initial ratios of basaltic rocks from the South China block (SCB) are indistinguishable from those of the NCB and CZ basaltic rocks, but their (t) values are relatively more elevated, plotting in right side of the mantle array. Basaltic rocks from the NCB and CZ are characterized by low ratios, lying to the left of the Geochron on the vs. correlation. Meanwhile, the SCB basaltic rocks have relatively radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions compared with those of the NCB and CZ basaltic rocks. Basaltic rocks from the Hayang Group plot within the field of the NCB basaltic rocks in Sr-Nd and Pb-Pb isotope spaces. Metasomatically enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is likely to have been the dominant source for the early Cretaceous magmatism. Asthenospheric upwelling under an early Cretaceous extensional tectonic setting in eastern China and the Korean Peninsula might be a heat source for melting of the enriched SCLM. Metasomatic agents proposed include partial melts of lower continental crust delaminated and foundered into the mantle or subducted Yangtze continental crust, or fluid/melt derived from the subducted paleo-Pacific plate.
 Keywords
Early Cretaceous;Eastern China;Gyeongsang basin;Basalt;Lithospheric mantle;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Charoy, B. and Raimbault, L., 1994, Zr-, Th-, and REE-rich biotite differentiates in the A-type granite pluton of Suzhou (Eastern China): the key role of fluorine. Journal of Petrology, 35, 919-962. crossref(new window)

2.
Chen, B., Jahn, B., Arakawa, A., and Zhai, M.G., 2004, Petrogenesis of the Mesozoic intrusive complexes from the southern Taihang Orogen, North China Craton and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 148, 489-501. crossref(new window)

3.
Chen, B., Jahn, B.-M., and Zhai, M., 2003, Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of the Mesozoic magmatism in the Taihang- Yanshan orogen, North China craton, and implications for Archean lithosphere thinning. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 160, 963-970. crossref(new window)

4.
Chen, B. and Zhai, M., 2003, Geochemistry of late Mesozoic lamprophyre dykes from the Taihang Mountains, north China, and implications for the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geological Magazine, 140, 87-93. crossref(new window)

5.
Chen, C.-H., Lee, C.-Y., and Shinjo, R., 2008, Was there Jurassic paleo-Pacific subduction in South China?: Constraints from $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ dating, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic geochemistry of the Mesozoic basalts. Lithos, 106, 83-92. crossref(new window)

6.
Chen, J. and Jahn, B.-M., 1998, Crustal evolution of southeastern China: Nd and Sr isotopic evidence. Tectonophysics, 284, 101-133. crossref(new window)

7.
Chen, J.-F., Yan, J., Xie, Z., Xu, X., and Xing, F., 2001, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of igneous rocks from the lower Yangtze region in eastern China: Constraints on sources. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26, 719-731. crossref(new window)

8.
Chough, S.-K., Kwon, S.-T., Ree, J.-H., and Choi, D.K., 2000, Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Korean peninsula: a review and new view. Earth-Science Review, 52, 175-235. crossref(new window)

9.
Chough, S.-K. and Sohn, Y.-K., 2010, Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of a Cretaceous continental arc-backarc system in the Korean peninsula: new view. Earth-Science Review, 101, 225-249. crossref(new window)

10.
Conticelli, S., Guarnieri, L., Farinelli, A., Mattei, M., Avanzinelli, R., Bianchini, G., Boari, E., Tommasini, S., Tiepolo, M., Prelevic, D., and Venturelli, G., 2009b, Trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of K-rich, shoshonitic, and calc-alkaline magmatism of the Western Mediterranean Region: genesis of ultrapotassic to calc-alkaline magmatic associations in a post-collisional geodynamic setting. Lithos, 107, 68-92. crossref(new window)

11.
Conticelli, S., Marchionni, S., Rosa, D., Giordano, G., Boari, E., and Avanzinelli, R., 2009a, Shoshonite and sub-alkaline magmas from an ultrapotassic volcano: Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data on the Roccamonfina volcanic rocks, Roman Magmatic Province, southern Italy. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 157, 41-63. crossref(new window)

12.
Darbyshire, D.P.F. and Sewell, R.J., 1997, Nd and Sr isotope geochemistry of plutonic rocks from Hong Kong: implications for granite petrogenesis, regional structure and crustal evolution. Chemical Geology, 143, 81-93. crossref(new window)

13.
Deng, J.F., Mo, X.X., Zhao, H.L., Wu, Z.X., Luo, Z.H., and Su, S.G., 2005, A new model for the dynamic evolution of Chinese lithosphere: 'continental roots-plume tectonics'. Earth Science Review, 65, 223-275.

14.
Duggen, S., Hoernle, K., Van Den Boggard, P., and Garbe- Schönberg, D., 2005, Post-collisional transition from subduction- to intraplate-type delamination of subcontinental lithosphere. Journal of Petrology, 46, 1155-1201. crossref(new window)

15.
Fan, W.-M., Guo, F., Wang, Y.-J., Lin, G., and Zhang, M., 2001, Post-orogenic bimodal volcanism along the Sulu orogenic belt in eastern China. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26, 733-746. crossref(new window)

16.
Fan, W.-M., Guo, F., Wang, Y.-J., and Zhang, M., 2004, Late Mesozoic volcanism in the northern Huaiyang tectono-magmatic belt, central China: partial melts from a lithospheric mantle with subducted continental crust relicts beneath the Dabie orogen? Chemical Geology, 209, 27-48. crossref(new window)

17.
Gao, S., Rudnick, R.L., Carlson, R.W., McDonough, W.F., and Liu, Y., 2002, Re-Os evidence for replacement of ancient mantle lithosphere beneath the North China craton. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 198, 307-322. crossref(new window)

18.
Gao, S., Rudnick, R.L., Xu, W.-L., Yuan, H.-L., Liu, Y.-S., Walker, R.J., Puchtel, I.S., Liu, X., Huang, H., Wang, X.-R., and Yang, J., 2008, Recycling deep cratonic lithosphere and generation of intraplate magmatism in the North China craton. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 270, 41-53. crossref(new window)

19.
Gao, S., Rudnick, R.L., Yuan, H.-L., Liu, X.-M., Liu, Y.-S., Xu, W.-L., Ling, W.-L., Ayers, J., Wang, X.-C., and Wang, Q.-H., 2004, Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton. Nature, 432, 892-897. crossref(new window)

20.
Gill, J. and Whelan, P., 1989, Early rifting of an oceanic island arc (Fiji) produced shoshonitic to tholeiitic basalts. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 4561-4578. crossref(new window)

21.
Griffin, W.L., Andi, Z., O'Reilly, S.Y., and Ryan, C.G., 1998, Phanerozoic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Sino-Korean craton. In: Flowers, M.F.J., Chung, S.L., Lo, C.H., Lee, T.Y. (Eds.), Mantle dynamics and plate interactions in East Asia. Geophysical Monograph: American Geophysical Union, 27, 107-126.

22.
Guo, F., Fan, W., and Li, C., 2006, Geochemistry of late Mesozoic adakites from the Sulu belt, eastern China: magma genesis and implications for crustal recycling beneath continental collisional orogens. Geological Magazine, 143, 1-13.

23.
Guo, F., Fan, W., Li, C., Wang, C.Y., Li, H., Zhao, L., and Li, J., 2014, Hf-Nd-O isotopic evidence for melting of recycled sediments beneath the Sulu Orogen, North China. Chemical Geology, 381, 243-258. crossref(new window)

24.
Guo, F., Fan, W., Wang, Y., and Zhang, M., 2004, Origin of early Cretaceous calc-alkaline lamprophyres from the Sulu orogen in eastern China: implications for enrichment processes beneath continental collisional belt. Lithos, 78, 291-305. crossref(new window)

25.
Guo, F., Fan, W., Wang, Y., and Li, C., 2005, Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Early Cretaceous high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Laiyang Basin of the Sulu Belt, eastern China. Island Arc, 14, 69-90. crossref(new window)

26.
Guo, F., Fan, W.M., Wang, Y.J., and Lin, G., 2001, Late Mesozoic mafic intrusive complexes in North China Block: constraints on the nature of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (A), 26, 759-771.

27.
Guo, J., Guo, F., Wang, C.Y., and Li, C., 2013, Crustal recycling processes in generating the early Cretaceous Fangcheng basalts, North China Craton: New constraints from mineral chemistry, oxygen isotopes of olivine and whole-rock geochemistry. Lithos, 170-171, 1-16. crossref(new window)

28.
Hacker, B., Ratschbacher, L., Webb, L., Ireland, T., Walker, D., and Dong, S., 1998, U/Pb zircon ages constrain the architecture of the ultrahigh-pressure Qinling-Dabie orogen, China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 161, 215-230. crossref(new window)

29.
Hart, 1984, A large-scale isotope anomaly in the southern hemisphere mantle. Nature, 309, 753-757. crossref(new window)

30.
Hawkesworth, C., Turner, S., Gallagher, K., Hunter, A., Bradshaw, T., and Rogers, N., 1995, Calc-alkaline magmatism, lithospheric thinning and extension in the Basin and Range. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 10271-10286. crossref(new window)

31.
He, Y., Li, S., Hoefs, J., Huang, F., Liu, S.-A., and Hou, Z., 2011, Post-collisional granitoids from the Dabie orogen: New evidence for partial melting of a thickened continental crust. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 3815-3838. crossref(new window)

32.
He, Y., Li, S., Hoefs, J., and Kleinhanns, I.C., 2013, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of Early Cretaceous granitoids from the Dabie orogen: Constraints on the recycled lower continental crust. Lithos, 156-159, 204-217. crossref(new window)

33.
Hirschmann, M.M., 2000, The mantle solidus: experimental constraints and the effect of peridotite composition. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 1 (2000GC000070).

34.
Hooper, P.R., Bailey, D.G., and Holder, G.A.M., 1995, Tertiary calc-alkaline magmatism associated with lithospheric extension in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 10303-10319. crossref(new window)

35.
Huang, F., Li, S., Dong, F., Li, Q., Chen, F., Wang, Y., and Yang, W., 2007, Recycling of deeply subducted continental crust in the Dabie Mountains, central China. Lithos, 96, 151-169. crossref(new window)

36.
Huang, J., Zheng, Y.-F., Zhao, Z.-F., Wu, Y.-B., Zhou, J.-B., and Liu, X., 2006, Melting of subducted continent: Element and isotopic evidence for a genetic relationship between Neoproterozoic and Mesozoic granitoids in the Sulu orogen. Chemical Geology, 229, 227-256. crossref(new window)

37.
Irvine, T.N. and Baragar, W.R.A., 1971, A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8, 523-548. crossref(new window)

38.
Ishizuka, O., Yuasa, M., Tamura, Y., Shukuno, H., Stern, R.J., Naka, J., Joshima, M., and Taylor, R.N., 2010, Migrating shoshonitic magmatism tracks Izu-Bonin-Mariana intra-oceanic arc rift propagation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 294, 111-122. crossref(new window)

39.
Jahn, B.M., Auvray, B., Shen, Q.H., Liu, D.Y., Zhang Z., Dong, Y.J., Ye, X.J., Zhang Q.Z., Cornichet, J., and Mace, J., 1988, Archean crustal evolution in China: the Taishan complex, and evidence for juvenile crustal addition from long-term depleted mantle. Precambrian Research, 38, 381-403. crossref(new window)

40.
Jahn, B.-M., Wu, F., Lo, C.-H., and Tsai, C.-H., 1999, Crust-mantle interaction induced by deep subduction of the continental crust: geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from post-collisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the northern Dabie complex, central China. Chemical Geology, 157, 119-146. crossref(new window)

41.
Kim, H.-S., Koh, J.-S., and Yun, S.-H., 2003, Petrology of the Cretaceous igneous rocks in the Mt. Baegyang area, Busan. Journal of Petrological Society of Korea, 12, 32-52.

42.
Kwon, S.-K., Choi, S.H., and Lee, D.-C., 2013, Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, South Korea: Implications for basin formation. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 73, 504-519. crossref(new window)

43.
Lapierre, H., Jahn, B.M., Charvet, J., and Yu, Y.W., 1997, Mesozoic felsic arc magmatism and continental olivine tholeiites in Zhejiang Province and their relationship with the tectonic activity in southeastern China. Tectonophysics, 274, 321-338. crossref(new window)

44.
Le Maitre, R.W., Bateman, P., Dudek, A., Keller, J., Lameyre, J., Le Bas, M.J., Sabine, P.A., Schmid, R., Sorensen, H., Streckeisen, A., Woolley, A.R., and Zanettin, B., 1989, A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms. Blackwell, Oxford.

45.
Lee, D.-W., 1999, Strike-slip fault tectonics and basin formation during the Cretaceous in the Korean Peninsula. Island Arc, 8, 21-231.

46.
Li, B. and Jiang, S.-Y., 2014, Geochronology and geochemistry of Cretaceous Nanshanping alkaline rocks from the Zijinshan district in Fujian Province, South China: Implications for crust-mantle interaction and lithospheric extension. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 93, 253-274. crossref(new window)

47.
Li, S.-G., Jagoutz, E., Lo, C.-H., Chen, Y.Z., Li, Q.L., and Xiao, Y.L., 1999, Sm/Nd, Rb/Sr, and $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ isotopic systematics of the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu belt, central China: A retrospective view. International Geology Review, 41, 1114-1124. crossref(new window)

48.
Li, X.-H., 2000, Cretaceous magmatism and lithospheric extension in Southeast China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18, 293-305. crossref(new window)

49.
Li, X.-H. and McCulloch, M.T., 1998, Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous mafic dikes from Northern Guandong, SE China: age, origin and tectonic significance. In: Flower, M.F.J., et al. (Eds.), Mantle Dynamics and Plate Interaction in East Asia. American Geophysical Union, pp. 405-419.

50.
Liu, J., Xu, Z., Liou, J.G., and Song, B., 2004, SHRIMP UPb ages of ultrahigh-pressure and retrograde metamorphism of gneisses, south-western Sulu terrane, eastern China. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 315-326. crossref(new window)

51.
Liu, S., Hu, R., Gao, S., Feng, C., Qu, Y., Wnag, T., Feng, G., and Coulson, I.M., 2008b, U-Pb zircon age, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on age and origin of alkaline intrusions and associated mafic dikes from Sulu orogenic belt, Eastern China. Lithos, 106, 365-379. crossref(new window)

52.
Liu, S., Hu, R., Gao, S., Feng, C., Yu, B., Feng, G., Qi, Y., Wang, T., and Coulson, I.M., 2009, Petrogenesis of Late Mesozoic mafic dykes i the Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton and implications for the foundering of lower crust. Lithos, 113, 621-639. crossref(new window)

53.
Liu, S., Hu, R.Z., Gao, S., Feng, C.Z., Qi, L., Zhong, H., Xiao, T., Qi, Y.Q., Wang, T., and Coulson, I.M., 2008a, Zircon U-Pb geochronology and major, trace elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic geochemistry of mafic dykes in western Shandong Province, east China: Constraints on their petrogenesis and geodynamic significance. Chemical Geology, 255, 329-345. crossref(new window)

54.
Liu, S., Zou, H., Hu, R., Zhao, J., and Feng, C., 2006, Mesozoic mafic dikes from the Shandong Peninsula, North China Craton: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Geochemical Journal, 40, 181-195. crossref(new window)

55.
Liu, S.-A., Li, S., He, Y., and Huang, F., 2010, Geochemical contrasts between early Cretaceous ore-bearing and ore-barren high-Mg adakites in central-eastern China: Implications for petrogenesis and Cu-Au mineralization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 7160-7178. crossref(new window)

56.
Lu, S., Zhao, G., Wang, H., and Hao, G., 2008, Precambrian metamorphic basement and sedimentary cover of the North China Craton: A review. Precambrian Research, 160, 77-93. crossref(new window)

57.
Ma, L., Jiang, S.-Y., Hofmann, A.W., Dai, B.-Z., Hou, M.-L., Zhao, K.-D., Chen, L.-H., Li, J.-W., and Jiang, Y.-H., 2014a, Lithospheric and asthenospheric sources of lamprophyres in the Jiaodong Peninsula: A consequence of rapid lithospheric thinning beneath the North China Craton? Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 124, 250-271. crossref(new window)

58.
Ma, L., Jiang, S.-Y., Hou, M.-L., Dai, B.-Z., Jiang, Y.-H., Yang, T., Zhao, K.-D., Pu, W., Zhu, Z.-Y., and Xu, B., 2014b, Geochemistry of Early Cretaceous calc-alkaline lamprophyres in the Jiaodong Peninsula: Implication for lithospheric evolution of the eastern North China Craton. Gondwana Research, 25, 859-872. crossref(new window)

59.
Martin, H., Bonin, B., Capdevila, R., Jahn, B.M., Lameyre, J., and Wang, Y., 1994, The Kuiqi peralkaline granitic complex (SE China): petrology and geochemistry. Journal of Petrology, 35, 983-1015. crossref(new window)

60.
Menzies, M.A., Fan, W.M., and Zhang, M., 1993, Palaeozoic and Cenozoic lithoprobes and loss of >120 km of Archean lithosphere, Sino-Korean craton, China. In: Prichard, H.M., Alabaster, T., Harris, N.B.W., Neary, C.R. (Eds.), Magmatic processes and plate tectonics. Geological Society of London Special Publications, Vol. 76, p. 71-81. crossref(new window)

61.
Menzies, M.A., and Xu, Y.G., 1998, Geodynamics of the North China Craton. In: Flowers, M.F.J., Chung, S.L., Lo, C.H., Lee, T.Y. (Eds.), Mantle dynamics and plate interactions in East Asia. Geophysical Monograph: American Geophysical Union, 27, 155-165.

62.
Meschede, M., 1986, A method of discriminating between different types of mid-ocean ridge basalts and continental tholeiites with the Nb-Zr-Y diagram. Chemical Geology, 56, 207-218. crossref(new window)

63.
Miller, C., Schuster, R., Klotzli, U., Frank, W., and Purtscheller, F., 1999, Post-collisional potassic and ultrapotassic magmatism in SW Tibet: geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic constraints for mantle source characteristics and petrogenesis. Journal of Petrology, 40, 1399-1424. crossref(new window)

64.
Niu, Y., 2005, Generation and evolution of basaltic magmas: some basic concepts and new views on the origin of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in eastern China. Geological Journal of China Universities, 11, 9-46.

65.
Pearce, J.A. and Norry, M.J., 1979, Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y and Nb variations in volcanic rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 69, 33-47. crossref(new window)

66.
Pe-Piper, G., Piper, D.J.W., Koukouvelas, I., Dolansky, L.M., and Kokkalas, S., 2012, Postorogenic shoshonitic rocks and their origin by melting underplated basalts: The Miocene of Limnos, Greece. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 39-54.

67.
Qiu, J., Xu, X., and Lo, C.-H., 2002, Potash-rich volcanic rocks and lamprophyres in western Shandong Province: $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ dating and source tracing. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47, 91-99.

68.
Rapp, R.P., Shimizu, N., and Norman, M.D., 2003, Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite. Nature, 425, 605-609. crossref(new window)

69.
Rapp, R.P. and Watson, E.B., 1995, Dehydration melting of metabasalt at 8-32 kbar: Implications for continental growth and crust-mantle recycling. Journal of Petrology, 36, 891-931. crossref(new window)

70.
Rudnick, R.L. and Fountain, D.M., 1995, Nature and composition of the continental crust: A lower crustal perspective. Reviews of Geophysics, 33, 267-309. crossref(new window)

71.
Rudnick, R.L. and Gao, S., 2005, Composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick, R.L. (Ed.), The Crust: Treatise on Geochemistry 3, pp. 1-64.

72.
Rushmer, T., 1991, Partial melting of two amphibolites: contrasting experimental results under fluid-absent conditions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 107, 41-59. crossref(new window)

73.
Sewell, R.J. and Campbell, S.D.G., 1997, Geochemistry of coeval Mesozoic plutonic and volcanic suites in Hong Kong. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 154, 1053-1066. crossref(new window)

74.
Shu, L.S., Deng, P., Wang, B., Tan, Z.Z., Yu, X.Q., and Sun, Y., 2004, Lithology, kinematics and geochronology related to Late Mesozoic basin-mountain evolution in the Nanxiong-Zhuguang area, South China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 47, 673-688.

75.
Su, Y., Zheng, J., Griffin, W.L., Zhao, J., O'Reilly, S.Y., Tang, H., Ping, X., and Xiong, Q., 2013, Petrogenesis and geochronology of Cretaceous adakitic, I- and A-type granitoids in the NE Yangtze block: Constraints on the eastern subsurface boundary between the North and South China blocks. Lithos, 175-176, 333-350. crossref(new window)

76.
Sun, F.Y., Shi, Z.L., and Feng, B.Z., 1995, Gold ore geology, lithogenesis and metalogenesis related to the differentiation of mantle-derived C-H-O fluids in Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China. Jilin People's Press, Changchun, pp. 1-170 (in Chinese with English abstract).

77.
Sun, S.-S. and McDonough, W.F., 1989, Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and process. In Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds. Saunders, A.D. and Norry, M.J.) Geological Society of Special Publication, 313-345.

78.
Sun, W., Ding, X., Hu, Y.-H., and Li, X.-H., 2007, The golden transformation of the Cretaceous plate subduction in the west Pacific. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262, 533-542. crossref(new window)

79.
Tang, J., Zheng, Y.-F., Wu, Y.-B., Gong, B., Zha, X., and Liu, X., 2008b, Zircon U-Pb age and geochemical constraints on the tectonic affinity of the Jiaodong terrane in the Sulu orogen, China. Precambrian Research, 161, 389-418. crossref(new window)

80.
Tang, Y,-J., Zhang, H.-F., Ying, J.-F., Zhang, J., and Liu, X.-M., 2008a, Refertilization of ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the central North China craton: evidence from petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths. Lithos, 101, 435-432. crossref(new window)

81.
Tang, Y.-J., Zheng, J.-P., and Yu, C.-M., 2009, Age and composition of the Rushan intrusive complex in the northern Sulu orogen, eastern China: petrogenesis and lithospheric mantle evolution. Geological Magazine, 146, 199-215. crossref(new window)

82.
Turner, S., Arnaud, N., Liu, J., Rogers, N., Hawkesworth,C., Harris, N., Kelley, S., Van Calsteren, P., and Deng, W., 1996, Post-collision, shoshonitic volcanism on the Tibetan plateau: Implications for convective thinning of the lithosphere and the source of ocean island basalts. Journal of Petrology, 37, 45-71. crossref(new window)

83.
Venturelli, G., Thorpe, R.S., Dal Piaz, G.V., Del Moro, A., and Potts, M.J., 1984, Petrogenesis of calc-alkaline, shoshonitic, and associated ultrapotassic Oligocene volcanic rocks from the northwestern Alps, Italy. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 86, 209-220. crossref(new window)

84.
Wan, T. and Zeng, H., 2002, The distinctive characteristics of the Sino-Korean and the Yangtze plates. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 881-888. crossref(new window)

85.
Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Xu, J., Jian, P., Zhao, Z., Li, C., Xu, W., Ma, J., and He, B., 2007, Early Cretaceous adakitic granites in the Northern Dabie Complex, central China: Implications for partial melting and delamination of thickened lower crust. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 2609-2636. crossref(new window)

86.
Wang, Q., Xu, J.-F., Zhao, Z.-H., Bao, Z.-W., Xu, W., and Xiong, X.-L., 2004, Cretaceous high-potassium intrusive rocks in the Yueshan-Hongzhen area of east China: Adakites in an extensional tectonic regime within a continent. Geochemical Journal, 38, 417-434. crossref(new window)

87.
Wang, Y., Fan, W., Cawood, P.A., and Li, S., 2008, Sr-Nd- Pb isotopic constraints on multiple mantle domains for Mesozoic mafic rocks beneath the South China Block hinterland. Lithos, 106, 297-308. crossref(new window)

88.
Wang, Y., Fan, W., Guo, F., Peng, T., and Li, C., 2003, Geochemistry of Mesozoic mafic rocks adjacent to the Chenzhou-Linwu fault, South China: Implications for the lithospheric boundary between the Yangtz and Cathaysia blocks. International Geology Review, 45, 263-286. crossref(new window)

89.
Wang, Y., Fan, W., Peng, T., Zhang, H., and Guo, F., 2005, Nature of the Mesozoic lithospheric mantle and tectonic decoupling beneath the Dabie Orogen, Central China: Evidence from $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of early Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks. Chemical Geology, 220, 165-189. crossref(new window)

90.
Wilde, S.A., Zhou, Z., Nemchin, A.A., and Sun, M., 2003, Mesozoic crust-mantle interaction beneath the North China craton: a consequence of the dispersal of Gondwanaland and accretion of Asia. Geology, 31, 817-820. crossref(new window)

91.
Wolf, M.B. and Wyllie, P.J., 1994, Dehydration-melting of amphibolite at 10 kbar: the effects of temperature and time. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 115, 369-383. crossref(new window)

92.
Wu, F.Y., Ge, W.C., Sun, D.Y., and Guo, C.L. 2003b, Discussions on the lithospheric thinning in eastern China. Earth Science Frontiers, 10, 51-60. (in Chinese with English abstract)

93.
Wu, F.Y., Lin, J.Q., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.O., and Yang, J.H., 2005, Nature and significance of the Early Cretaceous giant igneous event in eastern China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 233, 103-119. crossref(new window)

94.
Wu, F.-Y., Walker, R.J., Ren, X.-W., Sun, D.-Y., and Zhou, X.-H., 2003a, Osmium isotopic constraints on the age of lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern China. Chemical Geology, 196, 107-129. crossref(new window)

95.
Xie, G., Mao, J., Li, R., and Bierlein, F.P., 2008, Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic studies of Late Mesozoic granitoids in the southeastern Hubei Province, Middle-Lower Yangtz River belt, Eastern China: Petrogenesis and tectonic setting. Lithos, 104, 216-230. crossref(new window)

96.
Xu, J,-F., Shinjo, R., Defant, M.J., Wang, Q., and Rapp, R.P., 2002, Origin of Mesozoic adakitic intrusive rocks in the Ningzhen area of east China: Partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust? Geology, 30, 1111-1114. crossref(new window)

97.
Xu, J.W. and Zhu, G., 1994, Tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone, eastern China. Geological Review, 36, 771-784 (in Chinese with English abstract). crossref(new window)

98.
Xu, R., Liu, Y., Tong, X., Hu, Z., Zong, K., and Gao, S., 2013, In-situ trace elements and Li and Sr isotopes in peridotite xenoliths from Kuandian, North China Craton: Insights into Pacific slab subduction-related mantle modification. Chemical Geology, 354, 107-123. crossref(new window)

99.
Xu, W., Gao, S., Wang, Q., Wang, D., and Liu, Y., 2006, Mesozoic crustal thickening of the eastern North China craton: Evidence from eclogitic xenoliths and petrologic implications. Geology, 34, 721-724. crossref(new window)