Carbon Material from Natural Sources as an Anode in Lithium Secondary Battery Bhardwaj, Sunil; Sharon, Maheshwar; Ishihara, T.; Jayabhaye, Sandesh; Afre, Rakesh; Soga, T.; Sharon, Madhuri;
Carbon materials of various morphologies were synthesized by pyrolysis of Soap-nut seeds (Sapindus mukorossi), Jack Fruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Date-seeds (Phoenix dactylifera), Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica), Tea leaves (Ehretia microphylla), Bamboo stem (Bambusa bambus) and Coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera), without using any catalyst. Carbon materials thus formed were characterized by SEM XRD and Raman. Carbon thus synthesized varied in size (in ) but all showed highly porous morphology. These carbon materials were utilized as the anode in Lithium secondary battery. Amongst the various precursors, carbon fibers obtained from Soap-nut seeds (Sapindus mukorossi) and Bamboo stem (Bambusa bambus), even after cycles, showed the highest capacity of 130.29 mAh/g and 92.74 mAh/g respectively. Morphology, surface areas and porosity of carbon materials obtained from these precursors were analyzed to provide interpretation for their capacity to intercalate lithium. From the Raman studies it is concluded that graphitic nature of carbon materials assist in the intercalation of lithium. Size of cavity (or pore size of channels type structure) present in carbon materials were found to facilitate the intercalation of lithium.
Carbon materials;Lithium battery carbon;Lithium intercalation;carbon from oil seeds;carbon from fibrous plant;