Modeling and Characterization of Steam-Activated Carbons Developed from Cotton Stalks Youssef, A.M.; Hassan, A.F.; Safan, M.;
Physically and chemically activated carbons (ACs) exhibited high adsorption capacities for organic and inorganic pollutants compared with other adsorbents due to their expanded surface areas and wide pore volume distribution. In this work, seven steam-ACs with different burn-off have been prepared from cotton stalks. The textural properties of these sorbents were determined using nitrogen adsorption at . The chemistry of the surface of the present sorbents was characterized by determining the surface functional C-O groups using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface pH, , and Boehm's acid-base neutralization method. The textural properties and the morphology of the sorbent surface depend on the percentage of burn-off. The surface acidity and surface basicity are related to the burn-off percentage. A theoretical model was developed to find a mathematical expression that relates the % burn-off to ash content, surface area, and mean pore radius. Also, the chemistry of the carbon surface is related to the % burn-off. A mathematical expression was proposed where % burn-off was taken as an independent factor and the other variable as a dependent factor. This expression allows the choice of the value of % burn-off with required steam-AC properties.
Influence of KMnO4 oxidation on the electrochemical performance of pitch-based activated carbons, Research on Chemical Intermediates, 2014, 40, 7, 2527
Preparation of novolac-type phenol-based activated carbon with a hierarchical pore structure and its electric double-layer capacitor performance, Carbon letters, 2014, 15, 3, 192
Comparative studies of porous carbon nanofibers by various activation methods, Carbon letters, 2013, 14, 3, 180
Youssef AM. Moisture sorption in relation to some characteristics of coal. Carbon, 12, 433 (1974). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(74)90009-8.
Youssef AM, El-Shobaky GA, El-Nabarawy T. Adsorption properties of carbons in relation to the various methods of activation. Surf Technol, 7, 451 (1978). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0376-4583(78)90023-7.
Radevic LR, Reinoso RF. Carbon materials in catalysis, In: Thrower PA, ed. Chemistry and physics of carbon Vol. 25, Marcel Dekker, New York, 243 (1997).
Parra J, de Sousa J, Pis J, Pajares JA, Bansal RC. Effect of gasification on the porous characteristics of activated carbons from a semianthracite. Carbon, 33, 801 (1995). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(95)00004-W.
McKay G. Adsorption of dyestuffs from aqueous solutions with activated carbon I: Equilibrium and batch contact-time studies. J Chem Technol Biotechnol, 32, 759 (1982). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.5030320712.
Mohanty K, Naidu JT, Meikap BC, Biswas MN. Removal of crystal violet from wastewater by activated carbons prepared from rice husk. Ind Eng Chem Res, 45, 5165 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie060257r.
Boehm HP. Surface oxides on carbon and their analysis: a critical assessment. Carbon, 40, 145 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(01)00165-8.
Youssef AM, Ahmed AI, El-Bana UA. Adsorption of cataionic dye (MB) and anionic dye (AG25) by physically and chemically activated carbons developed from rice husks. Carbon Lett, 13, 61 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.5714/CL.2012.13.2.061.
Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RAW, Moscou L, Pierott RA, Roquerol J, Siemieniewska T. Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special references to the determination of surface areas and porosity. Pure Appl Chem, 57, 603 (1985).
Mikhail RS, Guindy NM, Hanafi S. Surface properties of montmorillonite, an expanding-type clay mineral. Surf Technol, 7, 201 (1978). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0376-4583(78)90050-X.
Brunauer S, Deming LS, Deming WE, Teller E. On a theory of the van der Waals adsorption of gases. J Am Chem Soc, 62, 1723 (1940).
Martin-Martinez JM, Molina-Sabio M, Rodriguez-Reinoso F, Torregrosa R. Application of a reference material to the characterization of porous carbons. Fuel, 68, 204 (1989). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(89)90324-4.
Selles-Perez MJ, Martin-Martinez JM. Application of $\alpha$ and n plots to N2 adsorption isotherms of activated carbons. J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans, 87, 1237 (1991).
Jankowska H, Swiatkowski A, Choma J. Active carbon. Ellis Horwood, Warsaw, 83 (1991).
Wolfrum EA. Aachen Berichte der kernforschungsanlage Julich, No. 1194 (1975).
Moreno-Castilla C, Lopez-Ramon MV, Carrasco-Marin F. Changes in surface chemistry of activated carbons by wet oxidation. Carbon, 38, 1995 (2000). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00048-8.
Breger IA, Chandler JC. Determination of fixed water in rocks by infrared absorption. Anal Chem, 41, 506 (1969).
Kennedy LJ, Vijaya JJ, Sekaran G. Electrical conductivity study of porous carbon composite derived from rice husk. Mater Chem Phys, 91, 471 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2004.12.013.
Guo Y, Rockstraw DA. Physical and chemical properties of carbons synthesized from xylan, cellulose, and Kraft lignin by $H_3PO_4$ activation. Carbon, 44, 1464 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2005.12.002.