JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Microscopic Observation of Pellets Fabricated with Torrefied Larch and Tulip Tree Chips and Effect of Binders on the Durability of the Pellets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Chemical Engineering Research
  • Volume 53, Issue 2,  2015, pp.224-230
  • Publisher : The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
  • DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2015.53.2.224
 Title & Authors
Microscopic Observation of Pellets Fabricated with Torrefied Larch and Tulip Tree Chips and Effect of Binders on the Durability of the Pellets
Park, Dae-Hak; Ahn, Byung Jun; Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Jae-Won; Han, Gyu-Seong; Yang, In;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of several variables on the durability of wood pellets fabricated with torrefied larch (LAR) and tulip tree (TUT) chips. Microscopic observation by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer was also performed to identify the surface of the wood pellets visually. In addition, torrefied-LAR and TUT pellets were fabricated with the addition of moisture, lignin, starch and protein as binders, and durabilities of the pellets were analyzed statistically. Durabilities of torrefied-LAR and TUT pellets were lower than one of non-torrefied-LAR and TUT pellets. Durabilities of both pellets fabricated with the wood chips, which were torrefied with and 30 min, were the highest among all torrefaction conditions used in this study. From the microscopic observations, lignin was distributed broadly on the surface of non-torrefied wood pellets, whereas congregated partially on the surface of torrefied wood pellets. Durability of LAR pellets increased with the addition of moisture, but that of TUT pellets was reduced. Addition of binders contributed to increase the durability of LAR and TUT pellets. As a binder, lignin and protein were more effective than starch for improving the durability. In conclusion, mild torrefaction treatment, such as and 30 min, might be an optimal condition to minimize the durability reduction of the LAR and TUT pellets. In addition, when torrefied woody materials with high and low specific gravities are used as a raw material for the production of durable wood pellets, it might be required to adjust moisture content and torrefaction conditions of woody materials, respectively.
 Keywords
Wood Pellets;Durability;Scanning Electron Microscopy;Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer;Binder;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
1.
Improvement in The Fuel Characteristics of Empty Fruit Bunch by Leaching and Wet Torrefaction, Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, 2016, 44, 3, 360  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Li, Y. and Liu, H., "High-pressure Densification of Wood Residues to form An Upgraded Fuel," Biomass Bioenerg., 19, 177-186(2000). crossref(new window)

2.
Peng, J. H., "A Study of Softwood Torrefaction and Densification," Lambert Academic Publishing, 1-10(2013).

3.
Kiel, J., "Energy research Centre of the Netherlands," European Pellet Conference(2011).

4.
Chauvin, H., "Torrefaction-Fast Continuous Biomass Depolymerisation System," Thermya(2009).

5.
Chen, W. H. and Kuo, P. C., "A Study on Torrefaction of Various Biomass Materials and its Impact on Lignocellulosic Structure Simulated by Thermogravimetry," Energy, 35, 2580-2586(2010). crossref(new window)

6.
Stelte, W., Jonas, D., Niels P. K. N. and Hans, O. H., "Densification Concepts for Torrefied Biomass," International Energy Agency Bioenergy(2012).

7.
Bas, S. H., "A Study on the Economic Analysis and Optical Project Model of Woodchip Cogeneration Systems," Korean J. Chem. Eng., 28(4), 1023-1028(2011). crossref(new window)

8.
Kim, K. S., Choi, E. A., Ryu, J. S., Lee, Y. P., Park, J. Y., Choi, S. H. and Park, S. J., "A Study on Pyrolysis Characterization and Heating Value of Semi-carbonized Wood Chip," Appl. Chem. Eng., 23(5), 440-444(2012).

9.
Na, B. I., Ann, B. J., Jo, S. T. and Lee, J. W., "Optimal Condition of Torrefaction for the High-density Solid Fuel of Larch," Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 51(6), 739-744(2013). crossref(new window)

10.
Lee, J. W., Kim, Y. H., Lee, S. M. and Lee, H. W., "Torrefaction Characteristics of Wood Chip for the Production of High Energy Density Wood Pellet," Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 50(2), 385-389 (2012). crossref(new window)

11.
Park, S. J., "Development of Torrefaction Process for Production of High Heating Value Torrefacted Pellet," Korea Forest Service, 15-28(2011).

12.
Ahn, B. J., Chang, H. S., Cho, S. T., Han, G. S. and Yang, I., "Effect of the Addition of Binders on the Fuel Characteristics of Wood Pellet," J. Mokchae Konghak, 41(6), 475-489(2013).

13.
Kim, S. T., Park, D. H., Yang, I., Han, G. S. and Ahn, B. J., "Effect of Torrefaction Condition on the Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Larch," J. Mokchae Konghak, 43(1), 122-134(2015).

14.
Korea Forest Research Institute, "Standard of Wood Pellet," KFRI No. 2013-5, Seoul, Republic of Korea(2013).

15.
Lehtikangas, P., "Quality Properties of Pelleted Sawdust, Logging Residues and Bark," Biomass Bioenerg., 20, 351-360(2014).

16.
Obernberger, I. and Thek, G., "Physical Characterization and Chemical Composition of Densified Biomass Fuels with Regard to Their Combustion Behaviour," Biomass Bioenerg., 27, 653-669 (2004). crossref(new window)

17.
Stakl, M., Granstrom, K., Berghel, J. and Renstorm, R., "Industrial Process for Biomass Drying and Their Effects on the Quality Properties of Wood Pellets," Biomass Bioenerg., 27, 621-628(2004). crossref(new window)

18.
Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Sokhansanj, S., "Effects of Compressive Force, Particle Size and Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Biomass Pellets From Grasses," Biomass Bioenerg., 20, 648-654(2006).

19.
Bergstrom, D., Israelsson, S., Ohman, M., Dahlqvist, S., Gref, R., Boman, C. and Wasterlund, I., "Effects of Raw Material Particle Size Distribution on the Characteristics of Scots Pine Sawdust Fuel Pellets," Fuel Process. Technol., 89, 1324-1329(2008). crossref(new window)

20.
Kim, H., Lu, G., Li, T. and Sadakata, M., "Binding and Desulfurization Characteristics of Pulp Black Liquor in Biocoalbriquettes," Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 1607-1612(2002). crossref(new window)

21.
Briggs, J. L., Maier, D. E., Watkins, B. A. and Behnke, K. C., "Effects of Ingredients and Processing Parameters on Pellet Quality," Poultry Science, 78, 1464-1471(1999). crossref(new window)

22.
Kaliyan, N. and Morey, R. B., "Factors Affecting Strength and Durability of Densified Biomass Products," Biomass Bioenerg., 33, 337-359(2009). crossref(new window)

23.
Lee, S. M., Ahn, B. J., Choi, D. H., Han, G. S., Jeong, H. S. Ahn, S. H. and Yang, I., "Effects of Densification Variables on the Durability of Wood Pellets Fabricated with Larix kaempferi C. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Sawdust," Biomass Bioenerg., 48, 1-9(2013). crossref(new window)

24.
Ahn, B. J., Yang, I., Kim, S. T. and Park, D. H., "Potential of Torrefied Tulip-tree for the Production of Solid Bio-fuels," J. of The Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy, 9(4), 40-50(2013).

25.
Stevens, C. A., "Starch Gelatinization and the Influence of Particle Size, Steam Pressure and Die Speed on the Pelleting Process," Ph. D. dissertation, KS: Kansas State University, Manhattan (1987).