JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Synthesis of Highly Concentrated ZnO Nanorod Sol by Sol-gel Method and their Applications for Inverted Organic Solar Cells
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Chemical Engineering Research
  • Volume 53, Issue 3,  2015, pp.350-356
  • Publisher : The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
  • DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2015.53.3.350
 Title & Authors
Synthesis of Highly Concentrated ZnO Nanorod Sol by Sol-gel Method and their Applications for Inverted Organic Solar Cells
Kim, Solee; Kim, Young Chai; Oh, Seong-Geun;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The effects of the zinc oxide (ZnO) preparing process on the performance of inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) were explored. The morphology and size of ZnO nanoparticles were controlled, leading to more efficient charge collection from device and higher electron mobility compared with nanospheres. Nanosized ZnO particles were synthesized by using zinc acetate dihydrate and potassium hydroxide in methanol. Also, water was added into the reaction medium to control the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals from spherical particles to rods, and was used to prevent the gelation of dispersion. Solution-processed ZnO thin films were deposited onto the ITO/glass substrate by using spin coating process and then ZnO films were used as an electron transport layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells. The analyses were carried out by using TEM, FE-SEM, AFM, DLS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, current density-voltage characteristics and solar simulator.
 Keywords
Inverted Organic Photovoltaics;ZnO Thin Films;Morphology Control;Sol-Gel Method;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Tan, S., Chen, B., Sun, X., Fan, W., Kwok, H., Zhang, X. and Chua, S., "Blueshift of Optical Band Gap in ZnO Thin Films Grown by Metal-organic Chemical-vapor Deposition," J. Appl. Phys., 98, 013505(2005). crossref(new window)

2.
Pearton, S., Norton, D., Heo, K. Y. and Steiner, T., "Recent Progress in Processing and Properties of ZnO," Progr. in Mater. Sci., 50, 293-340(2005). crossref(new window)

3.
Kim, H. Y., Jo, Y. K., Lee, K. Y., Lee, I. H. and Tak, Y. S., "Fabrication of ZnO Rod by Electrodeposition and Its Application to Dye Sensitized Solar Cell," Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 50(1), 162-166(2012). crossref(new window)

4.
Fortunato, E. M., Barquinha, P. M., Pimentel, A., Goncalves, A. M., Marques, A. J., Pereira, L. M. and Martins, R. F., "Fully Transparent ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Produced at Room Temperature," Adv. Mater., 17, 590-594(2005). crossref(new window)

5.
Bong, H., Lee, W. H., Lee, D. Y., Kim, B. J., Cho, J. H., Cho, K., "High-mobility Low-temperature ZnO Transistors with Low-voltage Operation," Appl. Phys. Lett., 96, 192115(2010). crossref(new window)

6.
Cetinorgu, E. and Goldsmith, S., "Chemical and Thermal Stability of the Characteristics of Filtered Vacuum Arc Deposited ZnO, $SnO_2$ and Zinc Stannate Thin Films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 40, 5220(2007). crossref(new window)

7.
Nair, S., Sasidharan, A., Rani, V. D., Menon, D., Nair, S., Manzoor, K. and Raina, S., "Role of Size Scale of ZnO Nanoparticles and Microparticles on Toxicity toward Bacteria and Osteoblast Cancer Cells," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. in Medicine, 20, 235-241(2009).

8.
Gorla, C., Emanetoglu, N., Liang, S., Mayo, W., Lu, Y., Wraback, M. and Shen, H., "Structural, Optical, and Surface Acoustic Wave Properties of Epitaxial ZnO Films Grown on (0112) Sapphire by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition," J. Appl. Phys., 85, 2595-2602(1999). crossref(new window)

9.
Ravirajan, P., Peiro, A. M., Nazeeruddin, M. K., Graetzel, M., Bradley, D. D., Durrant, J. R. and Nelson, J., "Hybrid Polymer/Zinc Oxide Photovoltaic Devices with Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorods and an Amphiphilic Molecular Interface Layer," J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 7635-7639(2006). crossref(new window)

10.
Krebs, F. C., Thomann, Y., Thomann, R. and Andreasen, J. W., "A Simple Nanostructured Polymer/ZnO Hybrid Solar Cell -Preparation and Operation in Air," Nanotechnology, 19, 424013 (2008). crossref(new window)

11.
Boucle, J., Snaith, H. J. and Greenham, N. C., "Simple Approach to Hybrid Polymer/Porous Metal Oxide Solar Cells from Solutionprocessed ZnO Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C, 114, 3664-3674 (2010). crossref(new window)

12.
Chang, P. C., Fan, Z., Wang, D., Tseng, W. Y., Chiou, W. A., Hong, J. and Lu, J. G., "ZnO Nanowires Synthesized by Vapor Trapping CVD Method," Chem. Mater., 16, 5133-5137(2004). crossref(new window)

13.
Kong, X. Y., Ding, Y., Yang, R. and Wang, Z. L., "Single-crystal Nanorings Formed by Epitaxial Self-coiling of Polar Nanobelts," Science, 303, 1348-1351(2004). crossref(new window)

14.
Yang, J., Lin, Y. and Meng, Y., "Effects of Dye Ethching on the Morphology and Performance of ZnO Nanorod Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell," Korean J. Chem. Eng., 30(11), 2026-2029(2013). crossref(new window)

15.
Ni, Y. H., Wei, X. W., Hong, J. M. and Ye, Y., "Hydrothermal Preparation and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods," Mater. Sci. and Eng. B, 121, 42-47(2005). crossref(new window)

16.
Spanhel, L. and Anderson, M. A., "Semiconductor Clusters in the Sol-gel Process: Quantized Aggregation, Gelation, and Crystal Growth in Concentrated Zinc Oxide Colloids," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 113, 2826-2833(1991). crossref(new window)

17.
Wu, J. J. and Liu, S. C., "Low-temperature Growth of Well-aligned ZnO Nanorods by Chemical Vapor Deposition," Adv. Mater., 14, 215-218(2002). crossref(new window)

18.
Marotti, R., Guerra, D., Bello, C., Machado, G. and Dalchiele, E., "Bandgap Energy Tuning of Electrochemically Grown ZnO Thin Films by Thickness and Electrodeposition Potential," Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 82, 85-103(2004). crossref(new window)

19.
Saad, L. and Riad, M., "Characterization of Various Zinc Oxide Catalysts and Their Activity in the Dehydration-Dehydrogenation of Isobutanol," J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 73(2008).

20.
Rodriguez, J. A., Jirsak, T., Dvorak, J., Sambasivan, S. and Fischer, D., "Reaction of $NO_2$ with Zn and ZnO: Photoemission, XANES, and Density Functional Studies on the Formation of $NO_3$," J. Phys. Chem. B, 104, 319-328(2000). crossref(new window)

21.
Liu, X., Wu, X., Cao, H. and Chang, R., "Growth Mechanism and Properties of ZnO Nanorods Synthesized by Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition," J. Appl. Phys., 95, 3141-3147(2004). crossref(new window)

22.
Beek, W. J., Wienk, M. M., Kemerink, M., Yang, X. and Janssen, R. A., "Hybrid Zinc Oxide Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells," J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 9505-9516(2005). crossref(new window)

23.
Li, C. Y., Wen, T. C., Lee, T. H., Guo, T. F., Lin, Y. C. and Hsu, Y. J., "An Inverted Polymer Photovoltaic Cell with Increased Air Stability Obtained by Employing Novel Hole/Electron Collecting Layers," J. Mater. Chem., 19, 1643-1647(2009). crossref(new window)

24.
Sun, B. and Sirringhaus, H., "Solution-processed Zinc Oxide Fieldeffect Transistors Based on Self-assembly of Colloidal Nanorods," Nano Lett., 5, 2408-2413(2005). crossref(new window)

25.
Bacsa, R., Kihn, Y., Verelst, M., Dexpert, J., Bacsa, W. and Serp, P., "Large Scale Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanorods by Homogeneous Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Characterisation," Surf. Coat. Technol., 201, 9200-9204(2007). crossref(new window)

26.
Livage, J., Henry, M. and Sanchez, C., "Sol-gel Chemistry of Transition Metal Oxides," Prog. Solid State Chem., 18, 259-341(1988). crossref(new window)

27.
Bu, I. Y., "Effect of $NH_4OH$ Concentration on P-type Doped ZnO Film by Solution Based Process," Appl. Surf. Sci., 257, 6107-6111(2011). crossref(new window)

28.
Sekine, N., Chou, C. H., Kwan, W. L. and Yang, Y., "ZnO Nanoridge Structure and its Application in Inverted Polymer Solar Cell," Organic Electronics, 10, 1473-1477(2009). crossref(new window)

29.
Yin, Z., Zheng, Q., Chen, S. C. and Cai, D., "Interface Control of Semiconducting Metal Oxide Layers for Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Open-Circuit Voltages over 1.0 Volt," ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf., 5, 9015-9025(2013). crossref(new window)

30.
Olson, D. C., Lee, Y. J., White, M. S., Kopidakis, N., Shaheen, S. E., Ginley, D. S., Voigt, J. A. and Hsu, J. W., "Effect of Polymer Processing on the Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO Nanorod Photovoltaic Devices," J. Phys. Chem. C, 111, 16640-16645(2007). crossref(new window)

31.
Baxter, J. B. and Schmuttenmaer, C. A., "Conductivity of ZnO Nanowires, Nanoparticles, and Thin Films Using Time-resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 25229-25239(2006). crossref(new window)