JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
A Review of Chlorine Evolution Mechanism on Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA®)
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Chemical Engineering Research
  • Volume 53, Issue 5,  2015, pp.531-539
  • Publisher : The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
  • DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2015.53.5.531
 Title & Authors
A Review of Chlorine Evolution Mechanism on Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA®)
Kim, Jiye; Kim, Choonsoo; Kim, Seonghwan; Yoon, Jeyong;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Chlor-alkali industry is one of the largest electrochemical processes which annually producing 70 million tons of sodium hydroxide and chlorine from sodium chloride solution. (Dimensionally Stable Anodes) electrodes such as and , which is popular in chlor-alkali process, have been investigated to improve the chlorine generation efficiency. Although DSA electrode has been developed with various researches, understanding of the chlorine evolution mechanism is essential to the development of highly efficient DSA electrode. In this review paper, chlorine generation mechanisms are summarized and that of key factors are identified to systematically understand the chlorine generation mechanism. Rate determining step, effect of pH, reaction intermediate, and electrode crystal structure were intensively overviewed as key factors of the chlorine mechanism.
 Keywords
Chlor-alkali process;Chlorine evolution mechanism;DSA (Dimensionally Stable Anodes, );
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Trasatti, S., "Electrocatalysis in the Anodic Evolution of Oxygen and Chlorine," Electrochimica Acta, 29, 1503(1984). crossref(new window)

2.
Trasatti, S., "Electrocatalysis: Understanding the Success of $DSA^{(R)}$," Electrochimica Acta, 45, 2377(2000). crossref(new window)

3.
Hong-li, F., "Review on Domestic Chlor-alkali Industry," Chlor-Alkali Industry, 9, 41(2000).

4.
Walton, C. W. and White, R. E., "Utility of An Empirical Method of Modeling Combined Zero Gap/attached Electrode Membrane Chlor-alkali Cells," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 134, 565C(1987). crossref(new window)

5.
Khelifa, A., Moulay, S., Hannane, F., Benslimene, S. and Hecini, M., "Application of An Experimental Design Method to Study the Performance of Electrochlorination Cells," Desalination, 160, 91 (2004). crossref(new window)

6.
Bard, A. J. and Faulkner, L. R., "Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications," 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York(2001).

7.
Tattum, L., "Cw's Asia Chemical Prices for the Week Ended May 26, 2009," IHS Chemical Week, New York(2009).

8.
Trasatti, S., "Progress in the Understanding of the Mechanism of Chlorine Evolution at Oxide Electrodes," Electrochimica Acta, 32, 369(1987). crossref(new window)

9.
Over, H., "Atomic Scale Insights Into Electrochemical Versus Gas Phase Oxidation of Hcl Over Ruo2-based Catalysts: A Comparative Review," Electrochimica Acta, 93, 313(2013).

10.
Trasatti, S., "Electrocatalysis by Oxides-attempt at a Unifying Approach," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 111, 125(1980). crossref(new window)

11.
Harrison, J., Caldwell, D. and White, R., "Electrocatalysis and the Chlorine Evolution Reaction," Electrochimica Acta, 28, 1561(1983). crossref(new window)

12.
Harrison, J., Caldwell, D. and White, R., "Electrocatalysis and the Chlorine Evolution Reaction-ii. Comparison of Anode Materials," Electrochimica acta, 29, 203(1984). crossref(new window)

13.
Choi, J., Shim, S. and Yoon, J., "Design and Operating Parameters Affecting An Electrochlorination System," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19, 215(2013). crossref(new window)

14.
Luu, T. L., Kim, J. and Yoon, J., "Physicochemical Properties of $RuO_2$ and $IrO_2$ Electrodes Affecting Chlorine Evolutions," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 21, 400(2015). crossref(new window)

15.
Choi, J., Park, C. G. and Yoon, J., "Application of An Electrochemical Chlorine-generation System Combined with Solar Energy as Appropriate Technology for Water Disinfection," Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 107, 124(2013). crossref(new window)

16.
Jirkovsky, J., Hoffmannova, H., Klementova, M. and Krtil, P., "Particle Size Dependence of the Electrocatalytic Activity of Nanocrystalline $RuO_2$ Electrodes," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 153, E111(2006). crossref(new window)

17.
Ferro, S. and Battisti, A. D., "Electrocatalysis and Chlorine Evolution Reaction at Ruthenium Dioxide Deposited on Conductive Diamond," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 106, 2249(2002). crossref(new window)

18.
Cao, H., Lu, D., Lin, J., Ye, Q., Wu, J. and Zheng, G., "Novel Sb-doped Ruthenium Oxide Electrode with Ordered Nanotube Structure and Its Electrocatalytic Activity Toward Chlorine Evolution," Electrochimica Acta, 91, 234(2013). crossref(new window)

19.
Trieu, V., Schley, B., Natter, H., Kintrup, J., Bulan, A. and Hempelmann, R., "$RuO_2$-based Anodes with Tailored Surface Morphology for Improved Chlorine Electro-activity," Electrochimica Acta, 78, 188(2012). crossref(new window)

20.
Pankratiev, Y. D., "Correlation Between Oxygen Binding Energy and Catalytic Activity of Oxides," Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters, 20, 255(1982). crossref(new window)

21.
Cordfunke, E. and Konings, R., "The Enthalpy of Formation of $RuO_2$," Thermochimica acta, 129, 63(1988). crossref(new window)

22.
Ruetschi, P. and Delahay, P., "Influence of Electrode Material on Oxygen Overvoltage: a Theoretical Analysis," The Journal of Chemical Physics, 23, 556(1955). crossref(new window)

23.
O'M, B. J., "Kinetics of Activation Controlled Consecutive Electrochemical Reactions: Anodic Evolution of Oxygen," Journal of Chemical Physics, 24, 817(1956). crossref(new window)

24.
Conway, B. and Salomon, M., "Electrochemical Reaction Orders: Applications to the Hydrogen-and Oxygen-evolution Reactions," Electrochimica Acta, 9, 1599(1964). crossref(new window)

25.
Zeradjanin, A. R., Menzel, N., Strasser, P. and Schuhmann, W., "Role of Water in the Chlorine Evolution Reaction at $RuO_2$-based electrodes-understanding Electrocatalysis as a Resonance Phenomenon," ChemSusChem, 5, 1897(2012). crossref(new window)

26.
Bianchi, G., "Fundamental and Applied Aspects of the Electrochemistry of Chlorine," Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 1, 231(1971). crossref(new window)

27.
Erenburg, R., Krishtalik, L. and Bystrov, V., "Mechanism of Chlorine Evolution and Ionization on a Ruthenium Oxide Electrode," Elektrokhirniya, 8, 1740(1972).

28.
Kuhn, A. and Mortimer, C., "The Kinetics of Chlorine Evolution and Reduction on Titanium-supported Metal Oxides Especially $RuO_2$ and $IrO_2$," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 120, 231(1973). crossref(new window)

29.
Hansen, H. A., Man, I. C., Studt, F., Abild-Pedersen, F., Bligaard, T. and Rossmeisl, J., "Electrochemical Chlorine Evolution at Rutile Oxide (110) Surfaces," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 12, 283(2010). crossref(new window)

30.
Vallet, C., Tilak, B., Zuhr, R. and Chen, C. P., "Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopic Study of the Failure Mechanism of ($RuO_2$+ $TiO_2$)/Ti Thin Film Electrodes in $H_2SO_4$ Solutions," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 144, 1289(1997). crossref(new window)

31.
Zeradjanin, A. R., Schilling, T., Seisel, S., Bron, M. and Schuhmann, W., "Visualization of Chlorine Evolution at Dimensionally Stable Anodes by Means of Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy," Analytical chemistry, 83, 7645(2011). crossref(new window)

32.
Ardizzone, S., Carugati, A., Lodi, G. and Trasatti, S., "Surface Structure of Ruthenium Dioxide Electrodes and Kinetics of Chlorine Evolution," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 129, 1689(1982). crossref(new window)

33.
Zeradjanin, A. R., Mantia, F. L., Masa, J. and Schuhmann, W., "Utilization of the Catalyst Layer of Dimensionally Stable Anodesinterplay of morphology and Active Surface Area," Electrochimica Acta, 82, 408(2012). crossref(new window)

34.
Lodi, G., Sivieri, E., Battisti, A. D. and Trasatti, S., "Ruthenium Dioxide-based Film Electrodes," Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 8, 135(1978). crossref(new window)

35.
Losev, V., Bune, N. Y. and Chuvaeva, L., "Specific Features of the Kinetics of Gas-evolving Reactions on Highly Active Electrodes," Electrochimica Acta, 34, 929(1989). crossref(new window)

36.
Erenburg, R., Krishtalik, L. and Yaroshevskaya, I., "Mechanism of Chlorine Evolution at a Ruthenium-titanium Oxide Electrode," Soviet Electrochemistry, 11, 989(1975).

37.
Janssen, L., Visser, G. and Barendrecht, E., "Effect of Molecular Chlorine Diffusion on Theoretical Potential-current Density Relations for Chlorine Evolving Electrode," Electrochimica Acta, 28, 155(1983). crossref(new window)

38.
Faita, G. and Fiori, G., "Anodic Discharge of Chloride Ions on Oxide Electrodes," Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2, 31(1972). crossref(new window)

39.
Chen, R., Trieu, V., Zeradjanin, A. R., Natter, H., Teschner, D., Kintrup, J., Bulan, A., Schuhmann, W. and Hempelmann, R., "Microstructural Impact of Anodic Coatings on the Electrochemical Chlorine Evolution Reaction," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 14, 7392(2012). crossref(new window)

40.
Augustynski, J., Balsenc, L. and Hinden, J., "X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Studies of Ruo2-based Film Electrodes," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 125, 1093(1978). crossref(new window)

41.
Krishtalik, L. and Erenburg, R., "Kinetika Slozhnykh Elektrokhimicheskikh Reaktsii (the kinetics of complex electrochemical reactions)," Moscow: Nauka, 240(1981).

42.
Guerrini, E. and Trasatti, S., "Recent Developments in Understanding Factors of Electrocatalysis," Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 42, 1017(2006). crossref(new window)

43.
Consonni, V., Trasatti, S., Pollak, F. and O'Grady, W., "Mechanism of Chlorine Evolution on Oxide Anodes Study of Ph Effects," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 228, 393(1987). crossref(new window)

44.
Hepel, T., Pollak, F. H. and O'Grady, W. E., "Chlorine Evolution and Reduction Processes at Oriented Single-crystal $RuO_2$ Electrodes," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 133, 69(1986). crossref(new window)

45.
Burke, L. D. and O'Neill, J. F., "Some Aspects of the Chlorine Evolution Reaction at Ruthenium Dioxide Anodes," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 101, 341(1979). crossref(new window)

46.
Krishtalik, L., "Kinetics and Mechanism of Anodic Chlorine and Oxygen Evolution Reactions on Transition Metal Oxide Electrodes," Electrochimica Acta, 26, 329(1981). crossref(new window)

47.
Fernandez, J., M. Gennero de Chialvo and Chialvo, A., "Kinetic Study of the Chlorine Electrode Reaction on Ti/$RuO_2$ Through The Polarisation Resistance: Part III: Proposal of a Reaction Mechanism," Electrochimica Acta, 47, 1145(2002). crossref(new window)

48.
Thomassen, M., Karlsen, C., Borresen, B. and Tunold, R., "Kinetic Investigation of the Chlorine Reduction Reaction on Electrochemically Oxidised Ruthenium," Electrochimica Acta, 51, 2909(2006). crossref(new window)

49.
Comninellis, C., "Electrocatalysis in the Electrochemical Conversion/combustion of Organic Pollutants for Waste Water Treatment," Electrochimica Acta, 39, 1857(1994). crossref(new window)

50.
Erenburg, R., Krishtalik, L. and Bystrov, V., "Chlorine Evolution Mechanism at a Ruthenium Dioxide-titanium Dioxide Electrode," Sov. Electrochem, 8, 1240(1972).

51.
Janssen, L., Starmans, L., Visser, J. and Barendrecht, E., "Mechanism of the Chlorine Evolution on a Ruthenium Oxide/titanium Oxide Electrode and on a Ruthenium Electrode," Electrochimica Acta, 22, 1093(1977). crossref(new window)

52.
Denton, D., Harrison, J. and Knowles, R., "Chlorine Evolution and Reduction on $RuO_2$/$TiO_2$ Electrodes," Electrochimica Acta, 24, 521(1979). crossref(new window)

53.
Erenburg, R., "Mechanism of the Chlorine Reaction of Ruthenium-titanium Oxide Anodes," Soviet Electrochemistry, 20, 1481(1984).

54.
Fernandez, J., M. Gennero de Chialvo and Chialvo, A., "Kinetic Study of the Chlorine Electrode Reaction on Ti/$RuO_2$ Through the Polarisation Resistance: Part I: Experimental Results and Analysis of the pH Effects," Electrochimica Acta, 47, 1129(2002). crossref(new window)

55.
Fernandez, J., M. Gennero de Chialvo and Chialvo, A., "Kinetic Study of the Chlorine Electrode Reaction on Ti/$RuO_2$ Through the Polarisation Resistance: Part II: Mechanistic Analysis," Electrochimica Acta, 47, 1137(2002). crossref(new window)