JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
A Study on the Deposit Uniformity and Profile of Cu Electroplated in Miniaturized, Laboratory-Scale Through Mask Plating Cell for Printed Circuit Board (PCBs) Fabrication
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Chemical Engineering Research
  • Volume 54, Issue 1,  2016, pp.108-113
  • Publisher : The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers
  • DOI : 10.9713/kcer.2016.54.1.108
 Title & Authors
A Study on the Deposit Uniformity and Profile of Cu Electroplated in Miniaturized, Laboratory-Scale Through Mask Plating Cell for Printed Circuit Board (PCBs) Fabrication
Cho, Sung Ki; Kim, Jae Jeong;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
A miniaturized lab-scale Cu plating cell for the metallization of electronic devices was fabricated and its deposit uniformity and profile were investigated. The plating cell was composed of a polypropylene bath, an electrolyte ejection nozzle which is connected to a circulation pump. In deposit uniformity evaluation, thicker deposit was found on the bottom and sides of substrate, indicating the spatial variation of deposit thickness was governed by the tertiary current distribution which is related to transport. The surface morphology of Cu deposit inside photo-resist pattern was controlled by organic additives in the electrolyte as it led to the flatter top surface compared to convex surface which was observed in the deposit grown without organic additives.
 Keywords
Printed Circuit Boards;Metallization;Electroplating;Plating Cell;Uniformity;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Andricacos, P. C., Uzoh, C., Dukovic, J., Horkans, J. and Deligianni, H., "Damascene Copper electroplating for chip interconnections," IBM J. Res. Dev., 42, 567-574(1998). crossref(new window)

2.
Kim, Y.-S., Shin, J., Kim, H.-I., Cho, J.-H., Seo H.-K., Kim., G.-S. and Shin, H.-S., "A Study of Copper Electroless Deposition on Tungsten Substrate," Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 43(4), 495-502(2005).

3.
Kwon, O. J., Cho, S. K. and Kim, J. J., "Electrochemical Metallization Processes for Copper and Silver Metal Interconnection," Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 47(2), 141-149(2009).

4.
Kim, M. J. and Kim, J. J., "Electroplating for the Fabrication of Copper Interconnection in Semiconductor Devices," Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 52(1), 26-39(2014). crossref(new window)

5.
Mehdizadeh, S., Dukovic, J. O., Andricacos, P. C. and Romankiw, L. T., "The Influence of Lithographic Patterning on Current Distribution: A Model for Microfabrication by Electrodeposition," J. Electrochem. Soc., 139, 78-91(1992). crossref(new window)

6.
Mehdizadeh, S., Dukovic, J., Andricacos, P. C., Romankiw, L. T. and Cheh, H. Y., "The Influence of Lithographic Distribution in Electrodeposition: Experimental Study and Mass-Transfer Effects," J. Electrochem. Soc., 140, 3497-3505(1993). crossref(new window)

7.
Kondo, K., Fukui, K., Uno, K. and Shinohara, K., "Shape Evolution of Electrodeposited Copper Bumpstitle," J. Electrochem. Soc., 143, 1880-1886(1996). crossref(new window)

8.
Kondo, K. and Fukui, K., "Current Evolution of Electrodeposited Copper Bumps with Photoresist Angle," J. Electrochem. Soc., 145, 840-844(1998). crossref(new window)

9.
Kondo, K., Tanaka, Z., and Monden, T., "Shape Evolution of Electrodeposited Bumps with Additive," Electrochim. Acta, 44, 3691-3696(1999). crossref(new window)

10.
Hayashi, K., Fukui, K., Tanaka, Z. and Kondo, K., "Shape Evolution of Electrodeposited Bumps into Deep Cavities," J. Electrochem. Soc., 148, C145-C148(2001). crossref(new window)

11.
Subramanian, V. R. and White, R. E., "Simulating Shape Changes during Electrodeposition: Primary and Secondary Current Distribution," J. Electrochem. Soc., 149, C498-C505(2002). crossref(new window)

12.
Kim, B. and Ritzdorf, T., "Electrical Waveform Mediated Throughmask Deposition of Solder Bumps for Wafer Level Packaging," J. Electrochem. Soc., 151, C342-C347(2004). crossref(new window)

13.
Luo, J. K., Chu, D. P., Flewitt, A. J., Spearing, S. M., Fleck, N. A. and Milne, W. I., "Uniformity Control of Ni Thin-Film Microstructures Deposited by Through-Mask Plating," J. Electrochem. Soc., 152, C36-C41(2005). crossref(new window)

14.
Jenq, S. N., Wan, C. C. and Wang, Y. Y., "The Influence of Selfassembled Disulfide Additive on the Pattern Shape by Cu Electrodeposition Through Mask," J. Electroanal. Chem., 609, 68-74(2007). crossref(new window)

15.
Denn, M. M., Process fluid mechanics, Prentice-Hall, 1990, p. 112.

16.
Dukovic, J. O., "Feature-Scale Simulation of Resist Patterned Electrodeposition," IBM J. Res. Dev., 37, 125-141(1993). crossref(new window)

17.
Moffat, T. P., Bonevich, J. E., Huber, W. H., Stanishevsky, A., Kelly, D. R., Stafford, G. R. and Josell, D., "Superconformal Electrodeposition of Copper in 500-90 nm Features," J. Electrochem. Soc., 147, 4524-4535(2000). crossref(new window)

18.
Moffat, T. P., Wheeler, D., Edelstein, M. D. and Josell, D., "Superconformal Film Growth: Mechanism and Quantification," IBM J. Res. Dev., 49, 19-36(2005). crossref(new window)

19.
Newman, J. S., Electrochemical Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 2nd ed., 1991, p. 331.