Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Shallow Landslide Assessment Considering the Influence of Vegetation Cover
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Shallow Landslide Assessment Considering the Influence of Vegetation Cover
Viet, Tran The; Lee, Giha; Kim, Minseok;
  PDF(new window)
Many researchers have evaluated the influence of vegetation cover on slope stability. However, due to the extensive variety of site conditions and vegetation types, different studies have often provided inconsistent results, especially when evaluating in different regions. Therefore, additional studies need to be conducted to identify the positive impacts of vegetation cover for slope stabilization. This study used the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability Model (TRIGRS) to predict the occurrence of landslides in a watershed in Jinbu-Myeon, Pyeongchang-gun, Korea. The influence of vegetation cover was assessed by spatially and temporally comparing the predicted landslides corresponding to multiple trials of cohesion values (which include the role of root cohesion) and real observed landslide scars to back-calculate the contribution of vegetation cover to slope stabilization. The lower bound of cohesion was defined based on the fact that there are no unstable cells in the raster stability map at initial conditions, and the modified success rate was used to evaluate the model performance. In the next step, the most reliable value representing the contribution of vegetation cover in the study area was applied for landslide assessment. The analyzed results showed that the role of vegetation cover could be replaced by increasing the soil cohesion by 3.8 kPa. Without considering the influence of vegetation cover, a large area of the studied watershed is unconditionally unstable in the initial condition. However, when tree root cohesion is taken into account, the model produces more realistic results with about 76.7% of observed unstable cells and 78.6% of observed stable cells being well predicted.
Stability;Vegetation cover;Landslide scars;Root cohesion;Back-calculation;
 Cited by
Abe, K. and Ziemer, R. R. (1991), Effect of tree roots on shallow-seated landslides. Proceeding of the IUFRO technical session on geomorphic hazards in managed forests; Montreal, Canada, Department of Agriculture, pp. 11-20.

Aberrnethy, B. and BRutherfurd, I. D. (2000), The effect of riparian tree roots on the mass-stability of riverbanks, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 25, pp. 921-937. crossref(new window)

Ali, F. H. and Osman, N. (2008), Shear strength of a soil containing vegetation roots, Japanese Geotechnical Society, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 587-596.

Anderson, S. and Riemer, M. (1995), Collapse of saturated soil due to reduction in confinement, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 2, pp. 216-220. crossref(new window)

Baum, R. L., Godt, J. W. and Savage, W. Z. (2010), Estimating the timing and location of shallow rainfall-induced landslides using a model for transient, unsaturated infiltration, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, No. 3, pp. 1-26.

Baum, R. L., Savage, W. Z. and Godt, J. W. (2009), TRIGRS-A fortran program for transient rainfall infiltration and gridbased regional slope-stability analysis, Version 2.0. Colorado, U.S. Geological Survey, pp. 1-26.

Bischetti, G. B. and Chiaradia, E. A. (2010), Calibration of distributed shallow landslide models in forested landscapes, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 23-35. crossref(new window)

Bordoni, M., Meisina, C., Valentino, R., Bittelli, M. and Chersich, S. (2014), From slope-to regional-scale shallow landslides susceptibility assessment using TRIGRS, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci, Vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 7409-7464. crossref(new window)

Buchanan, P. and Savigny K. W. (1990), Factors controlling debris avalanche initiation, Can. Geotech. Journal, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 659-675. crossref(new window)

Buroughs, E. R. and Thomas, B. R. (1977), Declining root strength in douglas-fit after felling as a factor in slope stability, USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Vol. 190, pp. 1-27.

Casadei, M., Dietrich, W. E. and Miller, N. (2003), Controls on shallow landslide size, in D. Rickenmann and C.L. Chen (eds), Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment, Davos, Switzerland, (Rotterdam: Millpress), pp. 91-101.

Docker, B. B. and Hubble, T. C. T. (2008), Quantifying rootreinforcement of river bank soils by four Australian tree species, Geomorphology, Vol. 100, No. 3-4, pp. 401-418. crossref(new window)

Frank, G., Frei, M. and Boll, A. (2009), Effects of vegetation on the angle of internal friction of a moraine, For. Snow Landsc. Res, Vol. 82, No. 1, pp. 61-77.

Gray, D. H. (1973), Effects of forest clear-cutting on the stability of natural slopes: results of field studies, National Science Foundation. University of Michigan, Washington, pp. 45-66.

Gray, D. H. and Megahan, W. F. (1981), Forest vegetation removal and slope stability in the idaho batholith, For. Serv., U.S. Dep. of Agric, pp. 1-23.

Gritzner, M. L., Marcus, W. A., Aspinall, R. and Custer, S. G. (2001), Assessing landslide potential using GIS, soil wetness modeling and topographic attributes, Payette River, Idaho, Geomorphology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, pp. 149-165. crossref(new window)

Hanks, R. J. and Bowers S. A. (1963), Influence of variations in the diffusivity water content relation on infiltration, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 263-265. crossref(new window)

Ho, J. Y., Lee, K. T., Chang, T. C., Wang, Z. Y. and Liao, Y. H. (2012), Influences of spatial distribution of soil thickness on shallow landslide prediction, Engineering Geology, Vol. 124, No. 4, pp. 38-46. crossref(new window)

Huang, J. C. and Kao, S. J. (2006), Optimal estimator for assessing landslide model performance, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 957-965. crossref(new window)

Hussain, M., Stark, T. D. and Akhtar, K. (2010), Back-analysis procedure for landslides, International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering. S. Kibria, H. M. Qureshi and A. M. Rana. Lahore, Pakistan, Pakistan Geot. Eng. Society, pp. 159-166.

Iverson, R. M. (2000), Landslide triggering by rain infiltration, Water Resources Research, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 1897-1910. crossref(new window)

Jakob, M. (2000), The impacts of logging on landslide activity at clayoquot sound, british columbia, Cantena, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 279-300.

Kim, D., Lee, S. H. and Im, S. (2011), Analysis of the effect of tree roots on soil reinforcement considering its spatial distribution, J. Korean Env. Res. Tech, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 41-54.

Kim, D., Im, S., Lee, C. and Woo, C. (2013), Modeling the contribution of trees to shallow landslide development in a steep, forested watershed, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 61(C), pp. 658-668. crossref(new window)

Kim, D., Im, S. and Lee, S. H. (2010a), Predicting the rainfalltriggered landslides in a forested mountain region using TRIGRS model, Journal of Mountain Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 83-91. crossref(new window)

Kim, D., Lee, S. H., Combalicer, E. A., Hong, Y. and IM, S. (2010b), Estimating soil reinforcement by tree roots using the perpendicular root reinforcement model, International Journal of Erosion Control Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 80-84. crossref(new window)

Kim, M. S., Onda, Y. and Kim, J. K. (2015a), Improvement of shallow landslide prediction accuracy using soil parameterisation for a granite area in South Korea, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci, Vol.3, No. 1, pp. 227-267. crossref(new window)

Kim, M. S., Onda, Y., Kim, J. K. and Kim, S. W. (2015b), Effect of topography and soil parameterisation representing soil thicknesses on shallow landslide modelling, Quaternary International, Vol. 384, pp. 91-106. crossref(new window)

Lee, K. T. and Ho, J. Y. (2009), Prediction of landslide occurrence based on slope-instability analysis and hydrological model simulation, Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 375, No. 3, pp. 489-497. crossref(new window)

Lee, M. J., Choi, J., Park, I. and Lee, S. (2012a), Ensemblebased landslide susceptibility maps in Jinbu area, Korea, Environb Earth Sci, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 23-37. crossref(new window)

Lee, S., Hwang, J. and Park, I. (2012b), Application of datadriven evidential belief functions to landslide susceptibility mapping in Jinbu, Korea, Catena, Vol. 100, pp. 15-30.

Lee, S., Song, K. Y., Oh, H. J. and Choi, J. (2012c), Detection of landslides using web-based aerial photographs and landslide susceptibility mapping using geospatial analysis, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 16, pp. 4937-4966. crossref(new window)

Lee, S. C. and Hencher, S. R. (2014), Recent extreme rainfallinduced landslides and government countermeasures in korea. Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. K. Sassa, P. Canuti and Y. Yin (eds), New York, Springer, Vol. 1, pp. 357-361.

Liao, Z., Hong, Y., Kirschbaum, D., Adler, R. F., Gourley, J. J. and Wooten, R. (2011), Evaluation of TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis)'s predictive skill for hurricane-triggered landslides: a case study in macon county, north carolina, Nat. Hazards, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 325-339. crossref(new window)

Liu, C. N. and Wu, C. C. (2008), Mapping susceptibility of rainfall-triggered shallow landslides using a probabilistic approach, Environ Geol, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 907-915. crossref(new window)

Montgomery, D. R. and Dietrich, W. E. (1994), A physically based model for the topographic control on shallow landsliding, Water Resour. Res., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 1153-1171. crossref(new window)

O'Loughlin, C. (1974), The effect of timber removal on the stability of forest soils, Journal of hydrology (N.Z.), Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 121-134.

O'Loughlin, C. and Ziemer, R. R. (1982), The importance of root strength and deterioration rates upon edaphic stability in steepland forests. Proceedings of I.U.F.R.O. Workshop P.1.07-00 Ecology of Subalpine Ecosystems as a Key to Management, Oregon State University, Miscellaneous Publ, pp. 70-78.

Park, D. W., Nikhil, N. V. and Lee, S. R. (2013), Landslide and debris flow susceptibility zonation using TRIGRS for the 2011 Seoul landslide event, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 2547-2587. crossref(new window)

Penna, D., Borga, M., Aronica, G. T., Brigandi, G. and Tarolli, P. (2014), The influence of grid resolution on the prediction of natural and road-related shallow landslides, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 2127-2139. crossref(new window)

Salciarini, D., Godt, J. W., Savage, W. Z., Conversini, P., Baum, R. L. and Michael, J. A. (2006), Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy, Landslides, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 181-194. crossref(new window)

Schmidt, K. M., Roering, J. J., Stock, J. D., Dietrich, W. E., Montgomery, D. R. and Schaub, T. (2001), The variability of root cohesion as an influence on shallow landslide susceptiblity in the oregon coast range, Can. Geotech, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 995-1024. crossref(new window)

Schwarz, M., Giadrossich, F. and Cohen, D. (2013), Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure weibull survival function, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 4367-4377. crossref(new window)

Segoni, S, Rossi, G, Catani, F. (2012), Improving basin scale shallow landslide modelling using reliable soil thickness maps, Nat. Hazards, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 85-101. crossref(new window)

Sidle, R. C. and Ochiai, H. (2006), Landslides processes, prediction, and land use. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, pp. 1-312.

Skaugset, A. E. (1997), Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils. Oregon State University, Oregon State University libraries. PhD Thesis, pp. 1-300.

Steinacher, R., Medicus, G., Fellin, W. and Zangerl, C. (2009), The influence of deforestation on slope (in-) stability, Austrian journal of earth sciences, Vol. 102, No. 2, pp. 90-99.

Swanston, D. N. (1970), Mechanics of debris avalanching in shallow till soils of southeast alaska, USDA Forest Service Research Paper PNW, Vol. 103, pp. 121-134.

Swanston, D. N. and Marion D. A. (1991), Landslide response to timber harvest in southeast alaska, Proceeding of the Fifth Interagency Sedimentation Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, pp. 10-49.

Tarolli, P. and Tarboton, D. G. (2006), A new method for determining of most likely landslide initiation points and the evaluation of digital terrain model scale in terrain stability mapping, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 663-677. crossref(new window)

Taylor, D. W. (1948), Fundamentals of soil mechanics. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp. 1-712.

Terwilliger, V. J. and Waldron, L. J. (1990), Assessing the contribution of roots to the strength of undisturbed, slip prone soils, Catena, Vol. 17, pp. 151-162. crossref(new window)

Uchida, T., Tamur, K. and Akiyama, K. (2011), The role of grid cell size, flow routing algolithm and spatial variability of soil depth on shallow landslide prediction, Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment - Book, Vol. 11, pp. 149-157.

Van Asch, T. W. J. (1984), Landslides: The deduction of strength parameters of materials from equilibrium analysis, Catena, Vol. 11, pp. 39-49. crossref(new window)

Wu, T. H., McKinnell, W. P. and Swanston, D. N. (1979), Strength of tree roots on prince of wales island, alaska, Can. Geotech, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 19-33. crossref(new window)

Wu, W. and Sidle, R. C. (1995), A distributed slope stability model for steep forested basins, Water Resour. Res, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 2097-2110. crossref(new window)

Yuan, C. C., Chien, C. T., Chieh, Y. F. and Chi, L. S. (2005), Analysis of time-varying rainfall infiltration induced landslide, Environ Geol, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 466-479. crossref(new window)

Zhang, K., Cao, P. and Bao, R. (2012), Rigorous back analysis of shear strength parameters of landslide slip, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 1459-1464.

Ziemer, R. R. (1981), The role of vegetation in the stability of forested slopes. Proceedings of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Kyoto, Japan, XVII World Congress, pp. 297-308.