JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Cell Protective Effects of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Citrus Peel Pectin
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Cell Protective Effects of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Citrus Peel Pectin
Kwon, Soon Woo; Ko, Hyun Ju; Bae, Jun Tae; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Pyo, Hyeong Bae;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, has in recent years attracted considerable attention. Its benefits are increasingly appreciated by scientists and consumers due to its safety and usefulness. The chemistry and gel-forming characteristics of pectin have enabled to be used in pharmaceutical industry, health promotion and treatment. Yet, it has been rarely used in cosmetics because of its incompatibility with many cosmetic ingredients, including alcohols, and unstable viscosity of pectin gels under various pH and salt conditions. However, low-molecular-weight pectin oligomers have excellent biological activities, and depolymerization of pectin to produce cosmetic ingredients would be very useful. In this study, we attempted the development of cosmetic ingredients using pectin with an excellent effect on human skin. We developed a bio-conversion process that uses enzymatic hydrolysis to produce pectin hydrolysates containing mainly low-molecular-weight pectin oligomers. Gel permeation chromatography was used to determined the ratio of hydrolysis. The molecular weight of the pectin hydrolysates obtained varied between 200 and 2,700 Da. The two newly developed low-molecular-weight pectin hydrolysates, LMPH A and B, had higher anti-oxidative activities than pectin or D-galacturonic. Exposure to UVB radiation induces apoptotic cell death in epidermal cells. Annexin V binding and propidium iodide uptake were measured by flow cytometry to evaluate UVB-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. Both LMPH A and B reduced UVB-induced cell death and increased cell proliferation by 22% and 30% at 0.5% concentration respectively, while pectin had no significant activity. In conclusion, this study suggests that the newly developed low-molecular-weight pectin hydrolysates can be used as safe and biologically active cosmetic ingredients.
 Keywords
pectin;enzymatic hydrolysis;UVB;photo-damage;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
B. A. Gilchrest, M. Garmyn, and M. Yaar, Aging and photoaging affect gene expression in cultured human keratinocytes, Arch. Dermatol., 130(1), 82 (1994). crossref(new window)

2.
A. L. Norins, Free radical formation in the skin following exposure to ultraviolet light, J. Invest. Dermatol., 39, 445 (1962). crossref(new window)

3.
N. M. Lyons and N. M. O'Brien, Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture, J. Dermatol. Sci., 30(1), 73 (2002). crossref(new window)

4.
T. Yoshikawa, V. Rae, W. Bruins-Slot, J. W. Van den Berg, J. R. Taylor, and J. W. Streilein, Susceptibility to effects of UVB radiation on induction of contact hypersensitivity as a risk factor for skin cancer in humans, J. Invest. Dermatol., 95(5), 530 (1990). crossref(new window)

5.
C. K. Donawho, H. K. Muller, C. D. Bucana, and M. L. Kripke, Enhanced growth of murine melanoma in ultraviolet-irradiated skin is associated with local inhibition of immune effector mechanisms, J. Immunol., 157(2), 781 (1996).

6.
M. Goihman-Yahr, Skin aging and photoaging: an outlook, Clin. Dermatol., 14(2), 153 (1996). crossref(new window)

7.
Y. Miyachi, Photoaging from an oxidative standpoint, J. Dermatol. Sci., 9(2), 79 (1995). crossref(new window)

8.
D. P. Jin, C. Li, Y. Cong, H. Yang, W. X. Zhang, W. Guan, and Y. Ma, Inhibitory effects of vitamin E on UVB-induced apoptosis of chicken embryonic fibroblasts, Cell Biol. Int., 35(4), 381 (2011). crossref(new window)

9.
F. H. Igney and P. H. Krammer, Death and anti-death: tumour resistance to apoptosis, Nat. Rev. Cancer., 2(4), 277 (2002). crossref(new window)

10.
S. S. Leonard, J. J. Bower, and X. Shi, Metal-induced toxicity, carcinogenesis, mechanisms and cellular responses, Mol. Cell Biochem., 255(1-2), 3 (2004). crossref(new window)

11.
J. J. Batista, A. S. Martins, L. Moro, J. S. Resende, N. R. S. Martins, and A. C. Vasconcelos, Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks, Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., 59(2), 313 (2007). crossref(new window)

12.
C. Y. Liu, C. F. Lee, and Y. H. Wei, Role of reactive oxygen species-elicited apoptosis in the pathophysiology of mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial DNA mutations, J. Formos. Med. Assoc., 108(8), 599 (2009). crossref(new window)

13.
T. Hori, T. Kondo, M. Kanamori, Y. Tabuchi, R. Ogawa, Q. L. Zhao, K. Ahmed, T. Yasuda, S. Seki, K. Suzuki, and T. Kimura, Ionizing radiation enhances tumor necrosis ractor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis through up-regulations of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) in human osteosarcoma cells, J. Orthop. Res., 28(6), 739 (2010).

14.
F. M. Rattis, M. Concha, C. Dalbiez-Gauthier, P. Courtellemont, D. Schmitt, and J. Pequet-Navarro, Effects of ultraviolet B irradiation on human Langerhans cells: functional alteration on CD86 upregulation and induction of apoptotic cell death, J. Invest. Dermatol., 111(3), 373 (1998). crossref(new window)

15.
C. Petit-Frere, E. Capulas, J. E. Lowe, L. Koulu, R. J. Marttila, N. G. Jaspers, P. H. Clingen, M. H. Green, and C. F. Arlett, Ultraviolet-B induced apoptosis and cytokine release in xeroderma pigmentosum keratinocytes, J. Invest. Dermatol., 115(4), 687 (2000). crossref(new window)

16.
J. P. Vincken, H. A. Schols, R. J. Oomen, M. C. McCann, P. Ulvskov, A. G. Voragen, and R. G. Visser, If homogalcturonan were a side chain of rhamnogalacturonan I. Implications for cell wall architecture, Plant Physiology, 132(4), 1781 (2003). crossref(new window)

17.
C. D. May, Handbook of hydrocolloids, 169, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England, (2000).

18.
C. Rolin, B. Nielsen, and P. Glahn, Polysaccharides: structural diversity and functional versatility, 377, Marcel Dekker, New York (1998).

19.
M. S. Blois, Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical, Nature, 181, 1199 (1958). crossref(new window)

20.
K. Manderson, M. Pinart, K. M. Tuohy, W. E. Grace, A. T. Hotchkiss, W. Widmer, M. P. Yadhav, G. R. Gibson, and R. A. Rastall, In vitro determination of prebiotic properties of oligosaccharides derived from an orange juice manufacturing by-product stream, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71(12), 8383 (2005). crossref(new window)

21.
S. F. Ahrabi, G. Madsen, K. Dyrstad, S. A. Sande, and C. Graffner, Development of pectin matrix tablets for colonic delivery of model drug ropivacaine, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 10(1), 43 (2000). crossref(new window)

22.
M. Ashford, J. Fell, D. Attwood, H. Sharma, and P. Woodhead, An evaluation of pectin as a carrier for drug targeting to the colon, J. Control Release, 26(3), 213 (1993). crossref(new window)

23.
M. Ashford, J. Fell, D. Attwood, H. Sharma, and P. Woodhead, Studies on pectin formulations for colonic drug delivery, J. Control Release, 30(3), 225 (1994). crossref(new window)

24.
J. P. Chun and D. J. Huber, Polygalacturonase-mediated solubilization and depolymerization of pectic polymers in tomato fruit cell walls, Plant Physiol., 117(4), 1293 (1998). crossref(new window)

25.
M. B. Gewali, J. Maharjan, S. Thapa, and J. K. Shrestha, Studies on polygalacturonase from Aspergillus flavus, Sci. World., 5(5), 19 (2007).

26.
D. B. Pedrolli, E. Gomes, R. Monti, and E. C. Carmona, Studies on productivity and characterization of polygalacturonase from aspergillus giganteus submerged culture using citrus pectin and orange waste, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 144(2), 191 (2008). crossref(new window)

27.
G. Mandalari, R. N. Bennett, A. R. Kirby, R. B. Lo Curto, G. Bisignano. K. W. Waldron, and C. B. Faulds, Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia risso) peel, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(21), 8307 (2006). crossref(new window)

28.
S. M. Kral and R. F. McFeeters, Pectin hydrolysis: effect of temperature, degree of methylation, ph, and calcium on hydrolysis rates, J. Agric. Food Chem., 46(4), 1311 (1998). crossref(new window)

29.
K. Belafi-Bako, M. Eszterle, K. Kiss, N. Nemestothy, and L. Gubicza, Hydrolysis of pectin by Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase in a membrane bioreactor, J. Food Eng., 78(2), 438 (2007). crossref(new window)