JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Quality Characteristics of Vinegar Added with Different Levels of Black Garlic
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Quality Characteristics of Vinegar Added with Different Levels of Black Garlic
Sim, Hye Jin; Seo, Weon Taek; Choi, Myoung Hyo; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Shin, Jung Hye; Kang, Min Jung;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
In this study, we aimed to develop functional vinegar with different levels of black garlic through two stages of fermentation. Black garlic vinegars were prepared from black garlic and water (w/w) mixed with 1:2 (BG3), 1:5 (BG6), 1:9 (BG9) and 1:11 (BG12), and adding the sugar by adjusting the soluble solids content to . The alcohol content of black garlic vinegar was 5.2-5.5% after 7 days of alcohol fermentation at . Acetic acid fermented was at for 25 days and samples were taken at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 days. The pH of black garlic vinegar was not significantly different among the samples, but acidity was increased during fermentation. Total polyphenol contents showed irregular changes with the fermentation periods and were higher by black garlic content. At 25 days fermentation, total polyphenol contents were 18.96-56.56 mg/100 mL. Acetic acid content of black garlic vinegars was higher than other organic acids. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) contents of BG3 and BG6 were 13.03-14.54 and 1.69-2.20 mg/L, respectively. However SAC was not detected in BG9 and BG12. In 25 days fermented black garlic vinegar, the major mineral was K with a content ratio of 61-68% of total minerals. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of 25 days fermented black garlic vinegar were stronger at higher black garlic content.
 Keywords
vinegar;black garlic;fermentation;acetobacter;S-allyl cysteine;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Alonso AM, Castro R, Rodriguez MC, Guilln DA, Barroso CG. 2004. Study of the antioxidant power of brandies and vinegars derived from Sherry wines and correlation with their content in polyphenols. Food Res Int 37(7):715-721 crossref(new window)

2.
Amagase H. 2006. Clarifying the real bioactive constituents of garlic. J Nutr 136(3):716S-725S

3.
Andlauer W, Stumpf C, Fűrst P. 2000. Influence of the acetification process on phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 48(8):3533-3536 crossref(new window)

4.
Ann YG, Kim SK, Shin CS. 1999. Studies on ginseng vinegar. Korean J Food Nutr 12(5):447-454

5.
Baek CH, Jeong DH, Baek SY, Choi JH, Park HY, Choi HS, Jeong ST, Kim JH, Jeong YJ, Kwon JH, Yeo SH. 2013. Quality characteristics of farm-made brown rice vinegar via traditional static fermentation. Korean J Food Preserv 20(4): 564-572 crossref(new window)

6.
Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181:1199-1200 crossref(new window)

7.
Choi DJ, Lee SJ, Kang MJ, Cho HS, Sung NJ, Shin JH. 2008. Physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37(4):465-471 crossref(new window)

8.
Chung BH, Seo HS, Kim HS, Woo SH, Cho YG. 2010. Antioxidant and anticancer effects of fermentation vinegars with Phellinus linteus, Inonotus obliquus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Korean J Med Crop Sci 18(2):113-117

9.
Ferreres F, Gomes D, Valentao P, Goncalves R, Pio R, Chagas EA, Seabra RM, Andrade PB. 2009. Improved loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars: Variation of phenolics and antioxidative potential. Food Chem 114(3):1019-1027 crossref(new window)

10.
Hong SM, Kang MJ, Lee JH, Jeong JH, Kwon SH, Seo KI. 2012a. Production of vinegar using rubus coreanus and its antioxidant activities. Korean J Food Preserv 19(4):594-603 crossref(new window)

11.
Hong SM, Moon HS, Lee JH, Lee HI, Jeong JH, Lee MK, Seo KI. 2012b. Development of functional vinegar by using cucumbers. Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41(7):927-935 crossref(new window)

12.
Jang HJ, Lee ES, Shim YS, Seo DW, Hwang JB, Lee SJ, Ha JH. 2013. Chemical characteristics and flavors of bamboo-shoot vinegar. Korean J Food Sci Technol 45(6):675-681 crossref(new window)

13.
Jeong YJ. 2009. Current trends and future prospects in the korean vinegar industry. Food Sci Ind 42(2):52-59

14.
Jeong YJ, Seo JH, Jung SH, Shin SR, Kim KS. 1998. The quality comparison of uncleaned rice vinegar by two stages fermentation with commercial uncleaned rice vinegar. Korean J Postharvest Sci Technol 5(4):374-379

15.
Jeong YJ, Seo KI, Kim KS. 1996. Physicochemical properties of marketing and intensive persimmon vinegars. J East Asian of Diet Life 6(3):355-363

16.
Jeoung YJ, Lee MH. 2000. A view and prospect of vinegar industry. Food Ind Nutr 5(1):7-12

17.
Jo DJ, Lee HJ, Jeong YJ, Yeo SH, Kwon JH. 2014. Quality properties of pear vinegars with high-acidity under different fermentation conditions. Korean J Food Sci Technol 46(4): 418-424 crossref(new window)

18.
Joo KH, Cho MH, Park KJ, Jeong SW, Lim JH. 2009. Effects of fermentation method and brown rice content on quality characteristics of brown rice vinegar. Korean J Food Preserv 16(1):33-39

19.
Kang BH, Shin EJ, Lee SH, Lee DS. 2011. Optimization of the acetic acid fermentation condition of apple juice. Korean J Food Preserv 18(6):980-985 crossref(new window)

20.
Keum JH. 1999. Studies on garlic and pumpkin vinegar. Korean J Food Nutr 12(5):518-522

21.
Kim AJ, Rho JO. 2011. The quality characteristics of jelly added with black garlic concentrate. Korean J Hum Ecol 20(2): 467-473 crossref(new window)

22.
Kim BM, Oh YJ, Lim SB. 2009. Physicochemical characteristics of garlic from Daejeong Jeju and major cultivation areas in Korea. J Korean Culin Res 15(1):59-66

23.
Kim DH. 1999. Studies on the production of vinegar from fig. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28(1):53-60

24.
Kim HC. 2011. Development of vinegar using saltwort (Salicornia herbacea L.) and its antioxidant effect. Master's thesis, Sunchen University, Sunchen, Korea. p 40

25.
Kim KE, Choi OS, Lee YJ, Kim HS, Bae TJ. 2001. Processing of vinegar using the sea tangle (laminaria japonica) extract. Korean J Life Sci 11(3):211-217

26.
Kim KM, Chun SB, Koo MS, Choi WJ, Kim TW, Kwon YG, Chung HT, Billiar TR, Kim YM. 2001. Differential regulation of NO availability from macrophages and endothelial cells by the garlic component S-allyl cysteine. Free Radic Biol Med 30(7):747-756 crossref(new window)

27.
Kim MH, Son CW, Kim MY, Kim MR. 2008. Physicochemical, sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of jam prepared with black garlic. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37(12):1632-1639 crossref(new window)

28.
Kim SH, Cho HK, Shin HS. 2012. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of commercial vinegar drinks in Korea. Food Sci Biotechnol 21(6):1729-1734 crossref(new window)

29.
Ko EJ, Hur SS, Choi YH. 1998. The establishment of optimum cultural conditions for manufacturing garlic vinegar. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27(1):102-108

30.
Ko YJ, Jeong DY, Lee JO, Park MH, Kim EJ, Kim JW, Kim YS, Ryu CH. 2007. The establishment of optimum fermentation conditions for Prunus mume vinegar and its quality evaluation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36(3):361-365 crossref(new window)

31.
Kwon WY, Lee EK, Yoon JA, Chung KH, Lee KJ, Song BC, An JH. 2014. Quality characteristics and biological activities of vinegars added with young leaves of Akebia quinata. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43(7):989-998 crossref(new window)

32.
Lee EK, Kwon WY, Lee JW, Yoon JA, Chung KH, Song BC, An JH. 2014. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of vinegar supplemented added with Akebia quinata fruit during fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43(8):1217-1227 crossref(new window)

33.
Lee HH, Kim IJ, Kang ST, Kim YH, Lee JO, Ryu CH. 2010. Development of black garlic Yakju and its antioxidant activity. Korean J Food Sci Technol 42(1):69-74

34.
Lee JO, Kim KH, Yook HS. 2009 Quality characteristics of cookies containing various levels of aged garlic. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 19(1):71-77

35.
Lee MK, Choi SR, Lee J, Hong YH, Lee JH. 2012. Quality characteristics and anti-diabetic effect of yacon vinegar. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41(1):79-86 crossref(new window)

36.
Lee SJ, Ryu JH, Kim RJ, Lee HJ, Sung NJ. 2010. Effect of removed peel from sweet persimmon on nutritional ingredients and antioxidant activities. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nut 39(10):1495-1502 crossref(new window)

37.
Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Korean food standards codex. Available from: http://fse.foodnara.go.kr/residue/RS/jsp/menu_02_01_03.jsp?idx=56. Accessed December 14, 2015

38.
Na HS, Choi GC, Yang SI, Lee JH, Cho JY, Ma SJ, Kim JY. 2013. Comparison of characteristics in commercial fermented vinegars made with different ingredients. Korean J Food Preserv 20(4):482-487 crossref(new window)

39.
Park CH, Kim KH, Kim NY, Kim SH, Yook HS. 2014. Antioxidative capacity and quality characteristics of Yanggaeng with fermented aged black giant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L. var. ampeloprasum auct.) paste. Korean J Food Nutr 27(6):1014-1021 crossref(new window)

40.
Park HJ, Jeong SH, Yoon HH, Jung JH, Song JY. 2014. Optimization of the acetic acid fermentation for aronia vinegar using response surface methodology. Korean J Food Cook Sci 30(6):792-799 crossref(new window)

41.
Park MH, Lee JO, Lee JY, Yu SJ, Ko YJ, Kim YH, Ryu CH. 2005. Isolation and characteristics of acetic acid bacteria for persimmon vinegar fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34(8):1251-1257 crossref(new window)

42.
Ragazzi E, Veronese G. 1973. Quantitative analysis of phenol compounds after thin-layer chromatographic separation. J Chromatogr 77(2):369-375 crossref(new window)

43.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26(9-10):1231-1237 crossref(new window)

44.
Shin JH, Choi DJ, Lee SJ, Cha JY, Sung NJ. 2008. Antioxidant activity of black garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37(8):965-971 crossref(new window)

45.
Shin JH, Kang MJ, Kim RJ, Sung NJ. 2011. The quality characteristics of sausage with added black garlic extracts. Korean J Food Cook Sci 27(6):701-711 crossref(new window)

46.
Shin JH, Kim GM, Kang MJ, Yang SM, Sung NJ. 2010a. Preparation and quality characteristics of yogurt with black garlic extracts. Korean J Food Cook Sci 26(3):307-313

47.
Shin JH, Kim YA, Kang MJ, Yang SM, Sung NJ. 2010b. Preparation and characteristics of Sulgidduk containing different amounts of black garlic extract. Korean J Food Cook Sci 26(5):559-566

48.
Son SM. 1992. Study on the alcohol fermentation and subsequent vinegar production by immobilized cells from saccharified potato starch. Master's thesis, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea. p 4

49.
Sung NH, Jeong YJ. 2013. Consumer awareness survey on functional properties of vinegar beverage. Food Ind Nutr 18(1):37-42

50.
Tak HM, Kang MJ, Kim KM, Kang DW, Han SK, Shin JH. 2014a. Anti-inflammatory activities of fermented black garlic. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43(10):1527-1534 crossref(new window)

51.
Tak HM, Kim GM, Kim JS, Hwang CR, Kang MJ, Shin JH. 2014b. Quality characteristics and biological activity of fermented black garlic with probiotics. J Life Sci 24(5): 549-557 crossref(new window)

52.
Woo CH, Park CH, Yoon HH. 2000. Production of acetic acid from cellulosic biomass. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 15(5): 458-463

53.
Woo SM, Kim OM, Choi IW, Kim YS, Choi HD, Jeong YJ. 2007. Condition of acetic acid fermentation and effect of oligosaccharide addition on kiwi vinegar. Korean J Food Preserv 14(1):100-104

54.
Yang SM, Shin JH, Kang MJ, Sung NJ. 2011. Quality characteristics of pork ham containing different amounts of black garlic extracts. Korean J Food Preserv 18(3):349-357 crossref(new window)

55.
Yi MR, Hwang JH, Oh YS, Oh HJ, Lim SB. 2014. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of immature Citrus unshiu vinegar. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43(2):250-257 crossref(new window)

56.
Yoon SR, Kim GR, Lee JH, Lee SW, Yeo SH, Jeong YJ, Kwon JH. 2010. Properties of organic acids and volatile components in brown rice vinegar prepared using different yeasts and fermentation methods. Korean J Food Preserv 17(5):733-740