JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Influence of Reinforcing Systems on Thermal Aging Behaviors of NR Composites
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Elastomers and Composites
  • Volume 46, Issue ,3,  2011, pp.237-244
  • Publisher : The Rubber Society of Korea
  •  
 Title & Authors
Influence of Reinforcing Systems on Thermal Aging Behaviors of NR Composites
Choi, Sung-Seen ; Kim, Jong-Chul ;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Five natural rubber (NR) composites with different reinforcing systems of unfilled, carbon black, carbon black with silane coupling agent, silica, and silica with silane coupling agent were thermally aged and change of the crosslink densities by the accelerated thermal aging was investigated. The crosslink densities on the whole increased as the aging time elapsed irrespective of the reinforcing systems. The crosslink density changes became noticeable by increasing the aging temperature. For carbon black-filled composites, the silane coupling agent made the crosslink density change to be increased. For silica-filled composites, however, the silane coupling agent made the crosslink density increment reduced at 60 and and it hardly affect the degree of the crosslink density change at 80 and . The activation energies for the crosslink density changes of the carbon black-filled samples increased continuously in a logarithmic fashion, whereas that of the silica-filled one showed a quasi-steady state ranges at aging times of 30-150 days. The activation energy of the unfilled sample increased exponentially with the aging time. The experimental results were explained with sulfur donation from the silane coupling agent, surface modification of the filler by the silane coupling agent, adsorption of curative residues on the silica surface, and release of the adsorbed curative residues.
 Keywords
NR composite . thermal aging . reinforcing system . crosslink density change
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Influence of Reinforcing Systems on Thermal Aging Behaviors of NR Composites,Choi, Sung-Seen;Kim, Jong-Chul;

 References
1.
G. R. Cotton, "Mixing of carbon black with rubber - I. Measurement of dispersion rate by changes in mixing torque", Rubber Chem. Technol., 57, 118 (1984).

2.
J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. W. Bae, H. C. Park, and D. P. Kang, "Effects of reinforcing fillers on far-infrared vulcanization characteristics of EPDM", Elast. Compos., 44, 47 (2009).

3.
T. C. Gruber and C. R. Herd, "Anisometry measurements in carbon black aggregate populations", Rubber Chem. Technol., 70, 727 (1997).

4.
S.-S. Choi and S.-H. Ha, " Influence of the swelling temperature and acrylonitrile content of NBR on the water swelling behaviors of silica-filled NBR vulcanizates", J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15, 167 (2009).

5.
H. Raab, J. Fröhlich, and D. Göritz, "Surface topography and its Influence on the activity of carbon black", Kautsch. Gummi Kunstst., 53, 137 (2000).

6.
K. J. Kim, "Bifunctional silane (TESPD) effects on silica containing elastomer compound Part I: Natural rubber (NR)", Elast. Compos., 44, 134 (2009).

7.
S. Wolff and M.-J. Wang, "Filler-elastomer interactions. Part IV. The effect of the surface energies of fillers on elastomer reinforcement", Rubber Chem. Technol., 65, 329 (1992).

8.
A. I. Medalia, "Effect of carbon black on dynamic properties of rubber vulcanizates", Rubber Chem. Technol., 51, 437 (1978).

9.
W. M. Hess and V. E. Chirico, "Elastomer blend properties EM dash influence of carbon black type and location", Rubber Chem. Technol., 50, 301 (1977).

10.
Y. Bomal, S. Touzet, R. Barruel, Ph. Cochet, and B. Dejean, "Developments in silica usage for decreased tyre rolling resistance", Kautsch. Gummi Kunstst., 50, 434 (1997).

11.
C. H. Chen, J. L. Koenig, J. R. Shelton, and E. A. Collins, "The influence of carbon black on the reversion process in sulfur-accelerated vulcanization of natural rubber", Rubber Chem. Technol., 55, 103 (1982).

12.
E. F. Devlin, "Effect of cure variables on cis/trans isomerization in carbon black-reinforced cis-1,4-polybutadiene", Rubber Chem. Technol., 59, 666 (1986).

13.
S.-S. Choi, "Influence of filler composition ratio on properties of both silica and carbon black-filled styrene-butadiene rubber compounds", Elastomer, 36, 37 (2001).

14.
S.-S. Choi, "Influence of silane coupling agent on properties of filled styrene-butadiene rubber compounds", Kor. Polym. J., 8, 285 (2000).

15.
A. S. Hashim, B. Azahari, Y. Ikeda, and S. Kohjiya, "Effect of bis(3-triethoxysilyl propyl)tetrasulfide on silica reinforcement of styrene-butadiene rubber", Rubber Chem. Technol., 71, 289 (1998).

16.
S.-S. Choi, K.-J. Hwang, and B.-T. Kim, "Influence of bound polymer on cure characteristics of natural rubber compounds reinforced with different types of carbon blacks", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 98, 2282 (2005).

17.
Y.-C. Ou, Z.-Z. Yu, A. Vidal, and J. B. Donnet, "Effects of alkylation of silica filler on rubber reinforcement", Rubber Chem. Technol., 67, 834 (1994).

18.
Y. Li, M. J. Wang, T. Zhang, F. Zhang, and X. Fu, "Study on dispersion morphology of silica in rubber", Rubber Chem. Technol., 67, 693 (1994).

19.
R. P. Brown and T. Butler, Natural ageing of rubber. Changes in physical properties over 40 years, RAPRA Technology Ltd. (2000).

20.
R. P. Brown, T. Butler, and S. W. Hawley, Ageing of rubber. Accelerated heat ageing test results, RAPRA Technology Ltd. (2001).

21.
N. J. Morrison and M. Porter, "Temperature effects on the stability of intermediates and crosslinks in sulfur vulcanization", Rubber Chem. Technol., 57, 63 (1984).

22.
C. H. Chen, J. L. Koenig, J. R. Shelton, and E. A. Collins, "Characterization of the reversion process in accelerated sulfur curing of natural rubber", Rubber Chem. Technol., 54, 734 (1981).

23.
S.-S. Choi, "Bond dissociation of sulfur crosslinks in IR and BR vulcanizates using semi-empirical calculations", Kor. Polym. J., 5, 39 (1997).

24.
R. W. Layer, "Recuring vulcanizates. I. A novel way to study the mechanism of vulcanization", Rubber Chem. Technol., 65, 211 (1992).

25.
S.-S. Choi, "Influence of silica content on migration of antidegradants to the surface in NR vulcanizates", J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 68, 1821 (1998).

26.
S.-S. Choi, "Migration of antidegradants to the surface in NR vulcanizates containing both silica and carbon black", Kor. Polym. J., 6, 256 (1998).

27.
S.-S. Choi, J.-C. Kim, and C.-S. Woo, "Accelerated thermal aging behaviors of EPDM and NBR vulcanizates", Bull. Kor. Chem. Soc., 27, 936 (2006).

 Related Articles