JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Organic Matter and Hydraulic Loading Effects on Nitrification Performance in Fixed Film Biofilters with Different Filter Media
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 25, Issue 3,  2003, pp.277-286
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.3.277
 Title & Authors
Organic Matter and Hydraulic Loading Effects on Nitrification Performance in Fixed Film Biofilters with Different Filter Media
Peng, Lei; Oh, Sung-Yong; Jo, Jae-Yoon;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Nitrification performance of fixed film biofilters using coarse sand, loess bead, or styrofoam beads in biofilter columns 1 meter high and 30cm in diameter were studied at different hydraulic and organic matter loading rates. Synthetic wastewater was supplied to the culture tank in order to maintain desired TAN concentrations in inlet water to biofilters. All the biofilters were conditioned 5 months before start of sampling. TAN and conversion rates increased with an increase in the hydraulic loading rate (HLR). However, the improvement in biofilter performance was not linearly correlated to HLR in styrofoam bead filters. This is mainly due to the characteristics of the styrofoam beads used. TAN conversion rates of sand filters increased with the increase of HLR up to . per day. No increase in the TAN conversion rate was observed at the highest HLR since flooding on the media surface took place. HLR had a significant impact on the TAN conversion rates in loess bead filter up to the highest HLR tested (P<0.05). TAN conversion rates were much less at organic matter loading rates of 9 and 18kg per day than those without the addition of organic matter in styrofoam bead filters. The addition of glucose resulted in a reduction of the TAN conversion rate from 540 to 284g per day. No significant difference of TAN conversion rates between the two organic matter loading rates was found (p<0.05). This indicates that the impact of organic matter on nitrification becomes less and less sensitive with an increase in the COD/TAN ratio. At an organic matter loading rate of 9kg . per day, a great reduction of TAN conversion rates was observed in sand filters and loess bead filters. Clearly, organic matter can be one of the most Important Impacting factors on nitrification. conversion rates showed a similar trend for TAN. Based on the TAN and nitrite conversion rates, styrofoam beads showed the best performance among the three filter media tested. Also, the low gravity and price of styrofoam beads make the handling easier and more cost-effective for commercial application. The results obtained at the highest organic matter loading rates can be used in the biofilter design in recirculating aquaculture system.
 Keywords
nitrification;fixed film biofilter;TAN;hydraulic loading rate;organic matter;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Performance of a Recirculating Aquarium System for the Culture and Holding of Marine Fish,;;

Fisheries and aquatic sciences, 2004. vol.7. 2, pp.76-83 crossref(new window)
2.
Performance of a Lab-Scale Closed Seawater Recirculating System for Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Culture,;;;

Ocean and Polar Research, 2003. vol.25. 4, pp.493-501 crossref(new window)
1.
Performance of a Recirculating Aquarium System for the Culture and Holding of Marine Fish, Fisheries and aquatic sciences, 2004, 7, 2, 76  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Performance of a Lab-Scale Closed Seawater Recirculating System for Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Culture, Ocean and Polar Research, 2003, 25, 4, 493  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Alleman, J.E. 1985. Elevated nitrate occurrence in biological wastewater treatment systems. Water Sci. Tech., 17, 409-419.

2.
Anderson, B., H. Aspegren, D. Parker, and M. Litz. 1994. High rate nitrifying trickling filters. Water Sci. Tech., 9, 47-52.

3.
Bailey, J.E. and D.F. Ollis. 1986. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, New York. pp. 383-388.

4.
Boller, M., W. Gujer, and M. Tschui. 1994. Parameters affecting nitrifying biofilm reactors. Water Sci. Tech., 29, 1-11.

5.
Bovendeur, J., A.B. Zwaga, B.G.J. Lobee, and J.H. Blom. 1990. Fixed-biofilm reactors in aquacultural water recycle systems: effect of organic matter elimination on nitrification kinetics. Water Res., 24, 207-213. crossref(new window)

6.
Bower, C.E. and D.T. Turner. 1981. Accelerated nitrification in new seawater culture systems: effectiveness of commercial additives and seed media from established systems. Aquaculture, 24, 1-9. crossref(new window)

7.
Chamberlain, G. and H. Rosanthal. 1995. Aquaculture in the next century, opportunities for growth, challenges for sustainability. World Aquaculture, 26, 21-25.

8.
Davis, D.A. and C.R. Arnold. 1998. The design, management and production of a recirculating raceway system for the production of marine shrimp. Aqua. Eng., 17, 193-211. crossref(new window)

9.
Forster, J.R.M. 1974. Studies on nitrification in marine biological filters. Aquaculture, 4, 387-397. crossref(new window)

10.
Grasshoff, K., K. Kremling, and M. Ehrhardt. 1999. Methods of seawater analysis, 3rd ed. Wiley-VCH, Germany.

11.
Greiner, A.D. and M.B. Timmons. 1998. Evaluation of the nitrification rates of microbead and trickling filters in an intensive recirculating tilapia production facility. Aqua. Eng., 18, 189-200. crossref(new window)

12.
Grommen, R., I. Van Hauteghem, M. van Wambeke, and W. Verstraete. 2001. An improved nitrifying enrichment to remove ammonium and nitrite from freshwater aquaria systems. Aquaculture, 211, 115-124. crossref(new window)

13.
Hao, O.J. and J.M. Chen. 1994. Factors affecting nitrite buildup in submerged filter system. J. Environ. Eng., 120, 1298-1307. crossref(new window)

14.
Hill, D.O. and S.R. Gelman. 1977. Effects of chloride on nitrification rates in activated sludge systems. p. 206-213. In: Proc. Industrial Waste Conference, eds. by J.M. Bell. Purdue Univ.

15.
Hochheimer, J.N. 1990. Trickling filter model for closed system aquaculture. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD.

16.
Horrigan, S.G., A.F. Carlucci, and P.W. Williams. 1981. Light inhibition of nitrification in sea-surface films. J. Marine Res., 39, 557-565.

17.
Kaiser, G.E. and F.W. Wheaton. 1983. Nitrification filters for aquatic culture systems: state of the art. J. World. Maricult. Soc., 14, 302-324.

18.
Kamstra, K., J.W. van der Heul, and M. Nijhof. 1998. Performance and optimization of trickling filters on eel farms. Aqua. Eng., 17, 175-192. crossref(new window)

19.
Lekang, O.I. and H. Kleppe. 2000. Efficiency of nitrification in trickling filters using different filter media. Aqua. Eng., 21, 191-199.

20.
Liao, P.B. and R.D. Mayor. 1974. Intensified fish culture combining water reconditioning with pollution abatement. Aquaculture, 3, 61-85. crossref(new window)

21.
Liu,Y. and B. Capdeville. 1994. Kinetic behaviors of nitrifying biofilm growth in wastewater nitrification process. Environ. Tech., 15, 1001-1013. crossref(new window)

22.
Losordo, T.M. 1991. An introduction to recirculating production system design. p. 32-47. In: Proceedings, Engineering Aspects of Intensive Aquaculture Symposium. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

23.
Malone, R.F., E.B. Lance, and A. Jr. De Los Reyes. 1999. Sizing and management of floating bead bioclarifiers. In: Aquaculture Engineering and Waste Management, Proceedings from the Aquaculture Exposition and Aquaculture Mid-atlantic Conference, Washington D.C.

24.
Menasveta, P., T. Panritdam, P. Sihanonth, S. Powtongsook, B. Chuntapa, and P. Lee. 2001. Design and function of a closed, recirculating seawater system with denitrification for the culture of black tiger shrimp brookstock. Aqua. Eng., 25, 35-49. crossref(new window)

25.
Nijhof, M. and J. Bovendeur. 1990. Fixed film nitrification characteristic in sea-water recirculation fish culture system. Aquaculture, 87, 133-143. crossref(new window)

26.
Nijhof, M. and A. Klapwijk. 1995. Diffusional transport mechanism and biofilm nitrification characteristics influencing nitrite levels in nitrifying trickling filter effluents. Water Res., 29, 2287-2292. crossref(new window)

27.
Olson, R.J. 1981. Differential photoinhibition of marine nitrifying bacteria. J. Mar. Res., 39, 227-238.

28.
Pano, A. and E.J. Middlebrook. 1983. Kinetics of carbon and ammonia nitrogen removal in RBC's. J. Water Pollution Control Federation, 55, 956-965.

29.
Parker, D.S., T. Jacobes, E. Bower, D.W. Stowe, and G. Famer. 1997. Maximising trickling filter nitrification rates through biofilm control: research review and full-scall application. Water Sci. Tech., 36, 255-262.

30.
Redney, B.D. and R.R. Stickney. 1979. Acclimation to ammonia by tilapia aurea. Trans. American Fish. Soc., 108, 383-388. crossref(new window)

31.
Richardson, M. 1985. Nitrification Inhibitors in the Treatment of Sewage. Thames Water, Reading, Great Britain. 103 p.

32.
Ridha, M.T. and E.M. Cruz. 2001. Effect of biofilter media on water quality and biological performance of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis nilotics L. reared in a simple recirculating system. Aqua. Eng., 24, 157-166. crossref(new window)

33.
Rosa, M.F., A.A.L. Furtado, R.T. Albuquerque, S.G.F. Leite, and R.A. Medronho. 1998. Biofilm development and ammonia removal in the nitrification of a saline wastewater. Bioresource Tech., 65, 135-138. crossref(new window)

34.
Sakairi, M.A.C., K. Yasuda, and M. Matsumura. 1996. Nitrogen removal in seawater using nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria immobilized in porous cellulose carrier. Water Sci. Tech., 34, 267-274.

35.
Sandu, S.I., G.D. Boardman, B.J. Watten, and B.L. Brazil. 2002. Factors influencing the nitrification efficiency of fluidized bed filter with a plastic bead medium. Aqua. Eng., 26, 41-59. crossref(new window)

36.
Satoh, H., S. Okabe, N. Norimatsu, and Y. Watanabe. 2000. Significane of substrate C/N ratio on structure and activity of nitrifying biofilm determined by in situ hybridization and the use of microelectrodes. Water Sci. Tech., 41, 317-321.

37.
Spotte, S. 1992. Captive Seawater Fishes: Science and Technology. Wiley-interscience, New York, 71 p.

38.
Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons. 1972. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis. Fish. Board. Canada.

39.
Tseng, K.F., H.M. Su, and M.S. Su. 1998. Culture of Penaeus monodon in a recirculating system. Aqua. Eng., 17, 138-147. crossref(new window)

40.
Van Rijn, J. and G. Rivera. 1990. Aerobic and anaerobic in an aquaculture unit - nitrite accumulation as a results of nitrification and denitrification. Aqua. Eng., 9, 217-234. crossref(new window)

41.
Water Pollution Control Federation. 1983. Nutrient Control, Manual of Practice. Washington D.C.

42.
Weatherly, L.R. 1984. Rate models for a marine biological filter. Aqua. Eng., 3, 15-29. crossref(new window)

43.
Wheaton, F.W., J.N. Hochheimer, G.E. Kaiser, M.J. Kornes, G.S. Libey, and C. Easter. 1994. Nitrification principles. p. 101-126. In: Aquaculture Water Reuse Systems: Engineering Design and Management, eds. by M.B. Timmons and T. Losordo. Elsevier, Amesteram.

44.
Zhu, S.M. and S. Chen. 2001. Effects of organic carbon on nitrification rate in fixed film biofilters. Aqua. Eng., 23, 1-11.