Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Krill and Currents-Physical and Biological Interactions Influencing the Distribution of Euphausia superba
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 25, Issue 4,  2003, pp.633-644
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.633
 Title & Authors
Krill and Currents-Physical and Biological Interactions Influencing the Distribution of Euphausia superba
Nicol, Stephen;
  PDF(new window)
The distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), particularly in the South Atlantic, has traditionally been viewed as primarily determined by the flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Krill are viewed as being particles on a conveyor belt that carries them around the Antarctic continent resulting in a single circumpolar population. The evidence to support this viewpoint is largely circumstantial and there is very little direct evidence available of krill being moved by the currents-krill flux. There is also considerable biological and physical evidence which suggests that other factors may play a dominant role in the life history and distribution of krill. This review examines the evidence fur krill flux and also examines evidence that does not accord with this theory. The management implications of assuming krill flux are outlined and some lines for future research are suggested.
Antarctic krill;flux;transport;distribution;Antarctic Circumpolar Current;
 Cited by
Distribution and population dynamics of Euphausia superba: summary of recent findings, Polar Biology, 2005, 29, 1, 1  crossref(new windwow)
An experimental aquarium for observing the schooling behaviour of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 2010, 57, 7-8, 683  crossref(new windwow)
Among-year variation in growth of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba based on length-frequency data, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2013, 481, 53  crossref(new windwow)
Transport of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) across the Scotia Sea. Part I: Circulation and particle tracking simulations, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 2006, 53, 6, 987  crossref(new windwow)
Transport of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) across the Scotia Sea. Part II: Krill growth and survival, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 2006, 53, 6, 1011  crossref(new windwow)
A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 2009, 56, 5, 727  crossref(new windwow)
Amos, A.F. (1984). Distribution of krill (Euphausia superba) and the hydrography of the Southern Ocean: large-scale processes. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 4(Spec. No. 1), 306-329.

Aoyama, J., N. Mochioka, T. Oyake, S. Ishikawa, Y. Kawakami, P. Castle, M. Nishida, and K. Tsukamoto. 1999. Distribution and dispersal of anguillid leptocephali in the western Pacific Ocean revealed by molecular analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 188, 193-200. crossref(new window)

Atkinson, A., M.J. Whitehouse, J. Priddle, G.C. Cripps, P. Ward, and M.A. Brandon. 2001. South Georgia, Antarctica: a productive, cold water, pelagic ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 216, 279-308. crossref(new window)

Ayala, F.J. and J.W. Valentine. (1979). Genetic variability in the pelagic environment, a paradox. Ecology, 60(1), 24-29. crossref(new window)

Barber, P.H., S.R. Palumbi, M. Erdmann, and K. Kasin Moosa. 2000. Biogeography: a marine Wallace’s line? Nature, 406, 692-693. crossref(new window)

Brierley, A.S. and M.A. Brandon. 1999. Potential for longdistance dispersal of Euphausia crystallorophias in fast current jets. Marine Biology, 135, 77-82. crossref(new window)

Brierley, A.S., J.L. Watkins, C. Goss, M.T. Wilkinson, and I. Everson. 1999. Acoustic estimates of krill density at South Georgia, 1981-1998. CCAMLR Science, 6, 47-57.

Brierley, A.S., D.A. Demer, J.L. Watkins, and R.P. Hewitt. 2000. Concordance of interannual fluctuations in acoustically estimated densities of Antarctic krill around South Georgia and Elephant Island: biological evidence of same-year teleconnections across the Scotia Sea. Marine Biology, 134(4), 675-681.

Bucklin, A. and P.H. Wiebe. 1986. Genetic heterogeneity in euphausiid populations: Euphausia krohnii and Nematoscelis megalops in North Atlantic Slope Water. Limnology and Oceanography, 31(6), 1346-1352. crossref(new window)

Bucklin, A., T.C. LaJeunesse, E. Curry, J. Wallinga, and K. Garrison. 1996. Molecular genetic diversity of the copepod, Nanocalanus minor: genetic evidence of species and population structure in the N. Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Marine Research, 54, 285-310. crossref(new window)

Bucklin, A., S.B. Smolenack, A.M. Bentley, and P.H. Wiebe. 1997. Gene flow patterns of the euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, in the NW Atlantic based on MTDNA sequences for Cytochrome B and Cytochrome Oxidase I. J. of Plankton Res., 19(11), 1763-1781. crossref(new window)

Constable, A.J., S. Nicol, and P. Strutton. 2003. Southern Ocean productivity in relation to spatial and temporal variation in the physical environment. J. of Geophysical Res. (Special Issue on Southern Ocean Variability), 108(C4), 6-1 6-21.

Croxall, J.P., P.A. Prince, and C. Ricketts. 1985. Relationships between prey life-cycles and the extent, nature and timing of seal and seabird predation in the Scotia Sea. p. 516-533. In: Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. eds. By W.R. Siegfried, P.R. Condy, and R.M. Laws. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag.

Everson, I. 1976. Antarctic krill: A reappraisal of its distribution. Polar Record, 112, 15-23.

Everson, I. and E. Murphy. 1987. Mesoscale variability in the distribution of krill Euphausia superba. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 40(1-2), 53-60. crossref(new window)

Fevolden, S.E. and F.J. Ayala. 1981. Enzyme polymorphism in Antarctic krill (Euphausiacea). Genetic variation between populations and species. Sarsia, 66, 167-181.

Fevolden, S.E. and R. Schneppenheim. 1988. Genetic Population Structure of Euphausia superba Dana in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean as Demonstrated by different Electrophoretic Techniques. Polar Biology, 9, 1-8. crossref(new window)

Fevolden, S.E. and R. Schneppenheim. 1989. Genetic homogeneity of krill (Euphausia superba Dana) in the Southern Ocean. Polar Biology, 9, 533-539. crossref(new window)

Hewitt, R.P. and D.A. Demer. 1994. Acoustic estimates of krill biomass in the Elephant Island area: 1981-1993. CCAMLR Science, 1, 1-5.

Heywood, R.B., I. Everson, and J. Priddle. 1985. The absence of krill from the South Georgia zone, winter 1983. Deep-Sea Res., 32(3), 369-378. crossref(new window)

Hofmann, E.E., J.M. Klinck, R.A. Locarnini, B. Fach, and E. Murphy. 1998. Krill transport in the Scotia Sea and environs. Antarctic Science, 10(4), 406-415.

Hosie, G.W. 1994. The macrozooplankton communities of the Prydz Bay region, Antarctica. p. 93-123. In: Southern Ocean Ecology, the BIOMASS perspective. ed by S. Z. El-Sayed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Huntley, M.E. and P.P. Niiler. 1995. Physical Control of Population Dynamics in the Southern Ocean. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 52(3-4), 457-468. crossref(new window)

Ichii, T. 1990. Distribution of Antarctic krill concentrations exploited by Japanese krill trawlers and Minke whales. Proceedings of the National Institute of Polar Research Symposium on Polar Biology, 3, 36-56.

Ichii, T. and M. Naganobu. 1996. Surface water circulation in krill fishing areas near the South Shetland Islands. CCAMLR Science, 3, 125-136.

Ichii, T., K. Katayama, N. Obitsu, H. Ishii, and M. Naganobu. 1998. Occurrence of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) concentrations in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands: relationship to environmental parameters. Deep Sea Res. I, 45, 1235-1262. crossref(new window)

Jarman, S.N., N.G. Elliott, S. Nicol, and A. McMinn. 2002. Genetic differentiation in the Antarctic coastal krill Euphausia crystallorophias. Heredity, 88, 280-287. crossref(new window)

Jarman, S.N. and S. Nicol. 2002. Sources of variance in studies of krill population genetics. CCAMLR Science, 9, 107-116.

Jones, G.P., M.J. Millcich, M.J. Emslie, and C. Lunow. 1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population. Nature, 402, 802-804. crossref(new window)

Kanda, K., K. Takagi, and Y. Seki. 1982. Movement of the larger swarms of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba off Enderby Land during 1976-77 season. J. of the Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries, 68(1/2), 24-42.

Lascara, C.M., E.E. Hofmann, R.M. Ross, and L.B. Quetin. 1999. Seasonal variability in the distribution of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Deep-Sea Res. I, 46, 951-984. crossref(new window)

MacDonald, C.M., R. Williams, and M. Adams. 1986. Genetic variations and population structure of krill from the Prydz Bay region of Antarctic waters. Polar Biology, 6, 233-236. crossref(new window)

Mackintosh, N.A. 1972. Life cycle of Antarctic krill in relation to ice and water conditions. Discovery Reports, 36, 1-94.

Mackintosh, N.A. 1973. Distribution of post-larval krill in the Antarctic. Discovery Reports, 36, 95-156.

Marr, J.W.S. 1962. The natural history and geography of the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Discovery Reports, 32, 33-464.

Miller, D. and D. Agnew. 2000. Management of krill fisheries in the Southern Ocean. p. 300-337. In: Krill Biology, Ecology and Fisheries. ed by I. Everson. Blackwell Science.

Murphy, E.J., J.L. Watkins, K. Reid, P.N. Trathan, I. Everson, J.P. Croxall, J. Priddle, M.A. Brandon, A.S. Brierley, and E. Hofmann. 1998. Interannual variability of the South Georgia marine ecosystem: biological and physical sources of variation in the abundance of krill. Fisheries Oceanography, 7(3/4), 381-390. crossref(new window)

Murray, A.W.A., J.L. Watkins, and D.G. Bone. 1995. A biological acoustic survey in the marginal ice edge zone on the Bellingshausen Sea. Deep Sea Res. II, 42, 1159-1175. crossref(new window)

Nicol, S. 2003. Living krill, zooplankton and experimental investigations. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. (in press) crossref(new window)

Nicol, S., A. Constable, and T. Pauly. 2000a. Estimates of circum-polar Antarctic krill abundance based on recent acoustic density measurements. CCAMLR Science, 7, 87-99.

Nicol, S., J. Kitchener, R. King, G.W. Hosie, and de la W.K. Mare. 2000b. Population structure and condition of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) off East Antarctica ($80-150^{\circ}E$) during the Austral summer of 1995/1996. Deep Sea Res. II, 47, 2489-2517. crossref(new window)

Nicol, S., T. Pauly, N. Bindoff, S. Wright, D. Thiele, G. Hosie, P. Strutton, and E. Woehler. 2000c. Ocean circulation off East Antarctica affects ecosystem structure and sea-ice extent. Nature, 406, 504-507. crossref(new window)

Palumbi, S.R. 1999. The prodigal fish. Nature, 402, 733-735. crossref(new window)

Pauly, T., S. Nicol, and I. Higginbottom. 2000. Distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) off East Antarctica ($80-150^{\circ}\;east$) during the Austral summer of 1996. Deep Sea Res. II, 47, 2465-2488. crossref(new window)

Priddle, J., J.P. Croxall, I. Everson, R.B. Heywood, E.J. Murphy, P.A. Prince, and C.B. Sear. 1988. Large-scale fluctuations in distribution and abundance of krill: a discussion of possible causes. p. 169-182. In: Antarctic Ocean and Resources Variability. ed by D. Sahrhage. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag.

Raymont, J.E.G. 1976. Plankton and productivity in the seas. Oxford, UK, Pergamon Press, 1-660.

Reid, K., E.J. Murphy, V. Loeb, and R.P. Hewitt. 2002. Krill population dynamics in the Scotia Sea: variability in growth and mortality within a single population. J. of Marine Systems, 869. (in press) crossref(new window)

Ross, R.M. and L.B. Quetin. 1988. Euphausia superba: a critical review of annual production. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 90B(3), 499-505.

Ross, R.M., L.B. Quetin, and C.M. Lascara. 1996. Distribution of the Antarctic krill and dominant zooplankton west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Foundations for Ecological Research in the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region. R.M. Ross, E. Hofmann, and L.B. Quetin (eds). 70, 199-217.

Siegel, V. 1988. A concept of seasonal variation of krill (Euphausia superba) distribution and abundance west of the Antarctic Peninsula. p. 219-230. In: Antarctic Ocean and Resources Variability. ed by D. Sahrhage. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag.

Siegel, V. and U. Harm. 1996. The composition, abundance, biomass and diversity of the epipelagic zooplankton communities of the southern Bellingshausen Sea (Antarctic) with special reference to krill and salps. Archive of Fishery & Journal of Marine Res., 44(1-2), 115-139.

Siegel, V. 2000a. Krill (Euphausiacea) life history and aspects of population dynamics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57(Supplement S3), 130-150. crossref(new window)

Siegel, V. 2000b. Krill (Euphausiacea) demography and variability in abundance and distribution. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57(Supplement S3), 151-167. crossref(new window)

Smith, D.A., E.E. Hofmann, J.M. Klinck, and C.M. Lascara. 1999. Hydrography and circulation off the West Antarctic Peninsula Continental Shelf. Deep-Sea Res. I, 46, 925-949. crossref(new window)

Spirodonov, V.A. 1995. Spatial and temporal variability in reproductive timing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) Dana. Polar Biology, 15, 161-174.

Swearer, S.E., J.E. Caselle, D.W. Lea, and R.R. Warner. 1999. Larval retention and recruitment in an island population of a coral reef fish. Nature, 402, 799-802. crossref(new window)

Trathan, P.N., D.J. Agnew, D.G.M. Miller, J.L. Watkins, I. Everson, M.R. Thorley, E. Murphy, A.W.A. Murray, and C. Goss. 1992. Krill biomass in Area 48 and Area 58: recalculations of FIBEX data. p. 157-181. In: Selected Scientific Papers, 1992 (SC-CAMLR-SSP/9). Hobart, Australia, CCAMLR.

Ward, P., A.A. Atkinson, J.M. Peck, and A.G. Wood. 1990. Euphausiid life cycles and distribution around South Georgia. Antarctic Science, 2(1), 43-52.

Watkins, J.L. 1986. Variations in the size of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba Dana, in small swarms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 31, 67-73. crossref(new window)

Watkins, J. 2000a. Sampling krill - direct sampling. p. 8-19. In: Krill Biology, Ecology and Fisheries. ed by I. Everson. Blackwell Science.

Watkins, J. 2000b. Aggregation and vertical migration. p. 80-102. In: Krill Biology, Ecology and Fisheries. ed by I. Everson. Oxford, Blackwell Science.

Watkins, J.L., A.W.A. Murray, and H.I. Daly. 1999. Variation in the distribution of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba around South Georgia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 188, 149-160. crossref(new window)

Zane, L., L. Ostellarti, L. Macatrozzo, L. Bargelloni, B. Battaglia, and T. Patarnello. 1998. Molecular evidence for genetic subdivision of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences, 265 (1413), 2387-2391. crossref(new window)

Zane, L., L. Ostellari, L. Maccatrozzo, L. Bargelloni, J. Cuzin-Roudy, F. Buchholz, and T. Patarnello. 2000. Genetic differentiation in a pelagic crustacean (Meganyctiphanes norvegica: Euphausiacea) from the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology, 136, 191-199. crossref(new window)