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On the Wintertime Wind-driven Circulation in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea : Part I. Effect of Tide-induced Bottom Friction
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  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 25, Issue spc3,  2003, pp.361-371
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.spc3.361
 Title & Authors
On the Wintertime Wind-driven Circulation in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea : Part I. Effect of Tide-induced Bottom Friction
Lee, Jong-Chan; Kim, Chang-Shik; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Jun, Ki-Cheon;
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The effect of bottom friction on the steady wind-driven circulation in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (YSECS) has been studied using a two-dimensional numerical model with and without tidal forcing. Upwind flow experiment in YSECS has also been carried out with a schematic time variation in the wind field. The surface water setup and circulation pattern due to steady wind forcing are found to be very sensitive to the bottom friction. When the effects of tidal currents are neglected, the overall current velocities are overestimated and eddies of various sizes appear, upwind flow is formed within the deep trough of the Yellow Sea, forming a part of the topographic gyre on the side of Korea. When tidal forcing is taken into account, the wind-induced surface elevations are smoothed out due to the strong tide-induced bottom friction, which is aligned almost normal to the wind stresses; weak upwind flow is farmed in the deep trough of the Yellow Sea, west and south of Jeju. Calculation with wind forcing only through a parameterized linear bottom friction produces almost same results from the calculation with tidal forcing and wind forcing using a quadratic bottom friction, supporting Hunter (1975)'s linearization of bottom friction which includes the effect of tidal current, can be applied to the simulation of wind-driven circulation in YSECS. The results show that steady wind forcing is not a dominant factor to the winter-time upwind flow in YSECS. Upwind flow experiment which considers the relaxation of pressure gradient (Huesh et al. 1986) shows that 1) a downwind flow is dominant over the whole YSECS when the northerly wind reaches a maximum speed; 2) a trend of upwind flow near the trough is found during relaxation when the wind abates; 3) a northward flow dominates over the YSECS after the wind stops. The results also show that the upwind flow in the trough of Yellow Sea is forced by a wind-induced longitudinal surface elevation gradient.
wind-driven circulation;bottom friction;upwind flow;Yellow Sea;
 Cited by
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