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Sedimentary Facies and Evolution of the Cretaceous Deep-Sea Channel System in Magallanes Basin, Southern Chile
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  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 26, Issue 3,  2004, pp.385-400
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.3.385
 Title & Authors
Sedimentary Facies and Evolution of the Cretaceous Deep-Sea Channel System in Magallanes Basin, Southern Chile
Choe, Moon-Young; Sohn, Young-Kwan; Jo, Hyung-Rae; Kim, Yea-Dong;
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The Lago Sofia Conglomerate encased in the 2km thick hemipelagic mudstones and thinbedded turbidites of the Cretaceous Cerro Toro Formation, southern Chile, is a deposit of a gigantic submarine channel developed along a foredeep trough. It is hundreds of meters thick kilometers wide, and extends for more than 120km from north to south, representing one of the largest ancient submarine channels in the world. The channel deposits consist of four major facies, including stratified conglomerates (Facies A), massive or graded conglomerates (Facies B), normally graded conglomerates with intraformational megaclasts (Facies C), and thick-bedded massive sandstones (Facies D). Conglomerates of Facies A and B show laterally inclined stratification, foreset stratification, and hollow-fill structures, reminiscent of terrestrial fluvial deposits and are suggestive of highly competent gravelly turbidity currents. Facies C conglomerates are interpreted as deposits of composite or multiphase debris flows associated with preceding hyperconcentrated flows. Facies D sandstones indicate rapidly dissipating, sand-rich turbidity currents. The Lago Sofia Conglomerate occurs as isolated channel-fill bodies in the northern part of the study area, generally less than 100m thick, composed mainly of Facies C conglomerates and intercalated between much thicker fine-grained deposits. Paleocurrent data indicate sediment transport to the east and southeast. They are interpreted to represent tributaries of a larger submarine channel system, which joined to form a trunk channel to the south. The conglomerate in the southern part is more than 300 m thick, composed of subequal proportions of Facies A, B, and C conglomerates, and overlain by hundreds of m-thick turbidite sandstones (Facies D) with scarce intervening fine-grained deposits. It is interpreted as vertically stacked and interconnected channel bodies formed by a trunk channel confined along the axis of the foredeep trough. The channel bodies in the southern part are classified into 5 architectural elements on the basis of large-scale bed geometry and sedimentary facies: (1) stacked sheets, indicative of bedload deposition by turbidity currents and typical of broad gravel bars in terrestrial gravelly braided rivers, (2) laterally-inclined strata, suggestive of lateral accretion with respect to paleocurrent direction and related to spiral flows in curved channel segments around bars, (3) foreset strata, interpreted as the deposits of targe gravel dunes that have migrated downstream under quasi-steady turbidity currents, (4) hollow fills, which are filling thalwegs, minor channels, and local scours, and (5) mass-flow deposits of Facies C. The stacked sheets, laterally inclined strata, and hollow fills are laterally transitional to one another, reflecting juxtaposed geomorphic units of deep-sea channel systems. It is noticeable that the channel bodies in the southern part are of feet stacked toward the east, indicating eastward migration of the channel thalwegs. The laterally inclined strata also dip dominantly to the east. These features suggest that the trunk channel of the Lago Sofia submarine channel system gradually migrated eastward. The eastward channel migration is Interpreted to be due to tectonic forcing imposed by the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath the Andean Cordillera just to the west of the Lago Sofia submarine channel.
sedimentary facies;deep-sea channel system;architectural element;Lago Sofia Conglomerate;degris flow;
 Cited by
$CO_2$ 농도 및 온도 상승에 의한 졸참나무의 생태적 지위 변화,조규태;정헌모;한영섭;이승혁;

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