Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Ecological and Biogeochemical Response of Antarctic Ecosystems to Iron Fertilization and Implications on Global Carbon Cycle
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 27, Issue 2,  2005, pp.231-235
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.231
 Title & Authors
Ecological and Biogeochemical Response of Antarctic Ecosystems to Iron Fertilization and Implications on Global Carbon Cycle
Bathmann, Ulrich;
  PDF(new window)
The European Iron Fertilization Experiment EIFEX studied the growth and decline of a phytoplankton bloom stimulated by fertilising in the core of a mesoscale cyclonic eddy south of the Antarctic Polar Front with about 2 times 7 tonnes of iron sulphate. The phytoplankton accumulation induced by iron fertilization did not exceed despite a draw down of of nitrate that should have resulted in at least double to triple the amount of phytoplankton biomass assuming regular Redfield-ratios for draw down after phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean. During EIFEX the fertilized core of the mesoscale eddy evolved to a hotspot for a variety of small and medium sized mesozooplankton copepods. In contrast to copepods, the biomass of salps (Salpa thompson)) that dominated zooplankton biomass before the onset of our experiment decreased to nearly extinction. Most of the species of the rnosozooplankton community showed extremely hiか feeding rates compared to literature values from Southern Ocean summer communities. At the end of the experiment, massive phytoplankton sedimentation reached the sea floor at about 3800m water depth.
Antarctic ecosystem;iron fertilization;carbon cycle;mesozooplankton;
 Cited by
The SOLAS air–sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 2011, 58, 6, 753  crossref(new windwow)
Kohlenstoffpumpen im Ozean steuern das Klima. Globale Erwärmung, Biologie in unserer Zeit, 2010, 40, 5, 304  crossref(new windwow)
Gut content analyses of three dominant Antarctic copepod species during an induced phytoplankton bloom EIFEX (European iron fertilization experiment), Marine Ecology, 2009, 30, 3, 301  crossref(new windwow)
Gefährdung der „Food Security“ durch die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels, Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 2011, 6, 2, 253  crossref(new windwow)
Abraham, E.R., C.S. Law, P.W. Boyd, S.J. Lavender, M.T. Maldonado, and A.R. Bowie. 2000. Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom. Nature, 407, 727-730. crossref(new window)

Assmy, P., J. Henjes, M. Montresor, and V. Smetacek. Response and patterns of diatom species dominance: first results. (in preparation)

Bathmann, U., S. Jansen, S. Kragefsky, and L. von Harbou. Zooplankton response to iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean during EIFEX. (in preparation)

Boyd, P.W., A.J. Watson, C.S. Law, E.R. Abraham, T. Trull, R. Murdoch, D.C.E. Bakker, A.R. Bowie, K.O. Buesseler, H. Chang, M. Charette, P. Croot, K. Downing, R. Frew, M. Gall, M. Hatfield, J. Hall, M. Harvey, G. Jameson, J. LaRoche, M. Liddicoat, R. Ling, M.T. Maldonado, R.M. McKay, S. Noddler, S. Pickmere, R. Pridmore, S. Rintoul, K. Safi, P. Sutton, R. Strzepek, K. Tanneberger, S. Turner, A. Waite, and J. Zeldis. 2000. A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature, 407, 695-702. crossref(new window)

Brambati, A., G.P. Fanzutti, F. Finocchiaro, R. Melis, M. Frignani, M. Ravailoli, and M. Setti. 1997. Paleoenvironmental record in core Anta 91-30 (Drygalski Basin, Ross Sea, Antarctica). Antarct. Res. Ser., 72, 137-151.

Buesseler, K.O., J.E. Andrews, S.M. Pike, M.A. Charette, L.E. Goldson, M.A. Brzezinski, and V.P. Lance. 2005. Particle export during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr., 50, 311-327. crossref(new window)

Coale, K.H. et al. 2004. Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment: Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters. Science, 304, 408-414. crossref(new window)

Coale, K.H., K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Gordon, S. Tanner, F. Millero, P. Steinberg, P. Nightingale, D. Cooper, W.P. Cochlan, M.R. Landry, J. Constantinou, G. Rollwagen, A. Trasvina, and R. Kudela. 1996. A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 383, 495-501. crossref(new window)

Coale, K.H., X. Wang, S.J. Tanner, and K.S. Johnson. 2003. Phytoplankton growth and biological response to iron and zinc addition in the Ross Sea and Antarctic Circumpolar Current along $170^{\circ}W$. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 635-653. crossref(new window)

Delmonte, B., J.R. Petit, and V. Maggi. 2002. Glacial to Holocene implications of the new 27000-year dust record from the EPICA Dome C (East Antarctica) ice core. Climate Dynam., 18, 647-660. crossref(new window)

Dubischar, C.D., R.M. Lopes, and U.V. Bathmann. 2002. High summer abundances of small pelagic copepods at the Antarctic Polar Front - implications for ecosystem dynamics. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 3871-3887. crossref(new window)

Henjes, H., P. Assmy, M. Montresor, and V. Smetacek. Response of the large protozooplankton and small metazooplankton to an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom during EIFEX. (in preparation)

Klaas, C., M. Schmidt, A. Terbruggen, and D. Wolf-Gladrow. in preparation. Evolution of Chl a during EIFEX.

Kragefsky, S., U. Bathmann, S. Jansen, L. von Harbou, and Smetacek, V. Behaviour and accumulation of mesozooplankton during two iron fertilization experiments. (in preparation)

Landry, M.R., M.E. Ondrusek, S.J. Tanner, S.L. Brown, J. Constantinou, R.R. Bidigare, K.H. Coale, and S. Fitzwater. 2000. Biological response to iron fertilization in the eastern equatorial Pacific (IronEx II). I. Microplankton community abundances and biomass. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 201, 27-42. crossref(new window)

Mahowald, N., K. Kohfeld, M. Hansson, Y. Balkanski, S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, M. Schulz, and H. Rodhe. 1999. Dust sources and deposition during the last glacial maximum and current climate: A comparison of model results with paleodata from ice cores and marine sediments. J. Geophys. Res., 04(D13), 15895-15916.

Martin, J.H. and S.E. Fitzwater. 1988. Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic. Nature, 331, 341-343. crossref(new window)

Peeken, I., L. Hoffmann, and K. Lochte. Pigment based highlights from the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment EIFEX. (in preparation)

Riebesell, U., M. Altabet, P. Assmy, U. Bathmann, D. Bakker, A. Benthien, Y. Bozec, H. de Baar, F. Gervais, C. Harms, C. Hartmann, J. Henjes, S. Kragefsky, K.-U Richter, M. Rutgers van den Loeff, R. Sanders, U. chneider, V. Smetacek, V. Strass, A. Terbruggen, I. Voge, and A. Watson. Iron-fertilization induces carbon export in the Southern Ocean. (in preparation)

Sachs, O., E. Sauter, M. Schluter, and I. Peeken. Benthic fluxes and pigments in deep-sea surface sediments of the EIFEX area. (in preparation)

Smetacek, V., U. Bathmann, and E. Helmke (Eds). 2005. The expedition ANTARKTIS XXI/3-4-5 of the research vessel Polarstern in 2004. Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 500. 302 p.

Smetacek, V. 2001. EisenEx: International Team Conducts Iron Experiment In Southern Ocean. U.S. JGOFS Newsletter, 40482.

Smetacek, V., P. Assmy, and J. Henjes. 2004. The role of grazing in structuring Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Antarct. Sci., 16, 541-558. crossref(new window)

Strass, V., B. Cisewski, S. Gonzales, C. Klaas, H. Leach, I. Peeken, H. Rohr, and V. Smetacek. The physical setting of ocean-deep particle export during EIFEX. (in preparation)

Strass, V., B. Cisewski, S. Gonzales, H. Leach, K-D. Loquay, H. Prandke, H. Rohr, and M. Thomas. 2005. The physical setting of the European iron fertilization experiment EIFEX in the Southern Ocean. p. 15-45. In: The expedition ANTARKTIS XXI/3-4-5 of the research vessel olarstern in 2004. Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 500. eds. by V. Smetacek, U. Bathmann, and E. Helmke.

Strass, V.H., U.V. Bathmann, M.M. Rutgers van den Loeff, and V. Smetacek. 2002. Mesoscale physics, biogeochemistry and ecology of the Antarctic Polar Front, Atlantic sector: An introduction to and summary of cruise ANT XIII/2 of R.V. Polarstern. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 3707-3711. crossref(new window)

von Harbou, L., U. Bathmann, and I. Peeken. Pigments in salp guts - first results from HPLC analysis of gut contents from Salpa thompsoni collected during EIFEX cruise. (in preparation)