Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Ocean Response to the Pinatubo and 1259 Volcanic Eruptions
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 34, Issue 3,  2012, pp.305-323
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.305
 Title & Authors
Ocean Response to the Pinatubo and 1259 Volcanic Eruptions
Kim, Seong-Joong; Kim, Baek-Min;
  PDF(new window)
The ocean's response to the Pinatubo and 1259 volcanic eruptions was investigated using an ocean general circulation model equipped with an energy balance model. Volcanic eruptions release gases into the atmosphere which increases the aerosol optical depth and acts to reduce the incoming short-wave radiation. For example, there was a huge volcanic eruption (Pinatubo) in 1991 which reduced the global mean radiative forcing by about 3 W . Two numerical experiments were simulated. The first experiment features the Pinatubo eruption and the second experiment simulates the much larger volcanic eruption that occurred in 1259 when the radiative forcing was reduced by 7 times compared to the Pinatubo event. With the reduced radiative forcing due to the Pinatubo eruption at about 3 W and 1259 eruption at about 21 W , the global mean sea surface temperature (SST) decreased to its lowest in the second year after each event by about and , respectively. Sea surface salinity (SSS) increased substantially in the northern North Pacific, northern North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. The reduced SST together with SSS increased ocean convection, which yielded an increase in North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water, and North Pacific Intermediate Water production and their outflows. The increase in overturning circulation eventually increased the pole-ward ocean heat fluxes. In conclusion, huge volcanic eruptions perturb the ocean substantially and their hallmarks last for more than a decade, confirming the importance of volcanic eruptions in illustrating the decadal-climate variability recorded in the paleoclimate proxy data for the past million years.
volcanic eruption;Pinatubo;surface cooling;ocean temperature;salinity;
 Cited by
Threshold of the volcanic forcing that leads the El Niño-like warming in the last millennium: results from the ERIK simulation, Climate Dynamics, 2016, 46, 11-12, 3725  crossref(new windwow)
Arakawa A, Lamb VR (1977) Computational design of the basic dynamical process of the UCLA general circulation model. Methods in Computational Physics 17, Academic Press, pp 173-265

Briffa KR (2000) Annual climate variability in the Holocene: interpreting the message of ancient trees. Quaternary Sci Rev 19:87-105 crossref(new window)

Briffa KR, Jones PD, Schweingruber FH, Osborn TJ (1998) Influence of volcanic eruptions on northern hemi- sphere summer temperatures over the last 600 years. Nature 393:450-455 crossref(new window)

Carmack EC (1977) Water characteristics of the Southern Ocean south of Polar Front. In: M Engel (ed) Voyage of Discovery. Deep-Sea Res 24:15-41

Church JA, White NJ, Arblaster JM (2005) Significant decadal-scale impact of volcanic eruptions on sea level and ocean heat content. Nature 438:74-77 crossref(new window)

Crowley TJ, Lowery TS (2000) How warm was the Medieval Warm Period? Ambio 29:51-54

Crowley TJ (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 289:270-277 crossref(new window)

Fieux M, Andrie C, Delecluse P, Ilahude AG, Kartavtseff A, Mantisi F, Molcard R, Swallow JC (1994) Measurements within the Pacific-Indian Oceans throughflow region. Deep-Sea Res 41(7):1091-1130 crossref(new window)

Frölicher TL, Joos F, Raible CC (2011) Sensitivity of atmospheric $CO_{2}$ and climate to explosive volcanic eruptions. Biogeosciences 8:2317-2339 crossref(new window)

Ganachaud A, Wunsch C (2000) Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature 408:453-457 crossref(new window)

Garnier E, Barnier B, Siefridt L, Béranger K (2000) Investigating the 15 years air-sea flux climatology from the ECMWF re-analysis project as a surface boundary condition for ocean models. Int J Climatol 20:1653-1673 crossref(new window)

Gleckler PJ, AchutaRao K, Gregory JM, Santer BD, Taylor KE (2006) Krakatoa lives: The effect of volcanic eruptions on ocean heat content and thermal expansion. Geophys Res Lett 33:L17702. doi:10.1029/2006GL026771 crossref(new window)

Gordon AL (1986) Interocean exchange of thermocline water. J Gephys Res 91(C4):5037-5046 crossref(new window)

Hellerman S, Rosenstein M (1983) Normal monthly wind stress data over the world ocean with error estimates. J Phys Oceanogr 13:1093-1104 crossref(new window)

Hogg NG, Siedler G, Zenk W (1999) Circulation and variability at the southern boundary of the Brazil Basin. J Phys Oceanogr 29:145-157 crossref(new window)

IPCC (2007) Climate Change (2007) The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of working group 1 to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Jones GS, Gregory JM, Stott PA, Tett SF, Thorpe RB (2005) An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption. Climate Dyn 25:725-738 crossref(new window)

Kirchner I, Stechnikov GL, Graf H-F, Robock A, Antuna JC (1999) Climate model simulation of winter warming and summer cooling following the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. J Geophys Res 104:19039-19055 crossref(new window)

Levitus S (1982) Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 17 fiches, 173 p

Levitus S, Boyer TP (1994) World ocean atlas 1994 Vol. 4: temperature. NOAA Atlas NESIDIS 4, US Department of Commerce, 117 p

Levitus S, Burgett R, Boyer TP (1994) World ocean atlas 1994 Vol. 3: salinity. NOAA Atlas NESIDIS 3, US Department of Commerce, 99 p

Lukas R, Yamagata T, McCreary JP (1996) Pacific lowlatitude western boundary currents and Indonesian throughflow. J Geophys Res 101:12,209-12,216

Macdonald AM (1998) The global ocean circulation: a hydrographic estimate and regional analysis. Prog Oceanogr 41:281-382 crossref(new window)

Macdonald A, Wunsch MC (1996) An estimate of global ocean circulation and heat fluxes. Nature 382:436-439 crossref(new window)

Maier-Reimer E, Mikolajewicz U, Hasselmann K (1993) Mean circulation of the Hamburg LSG OGCM and its sensitivity to the thermohaline surface forcing. J Phys Oceanogr 23:731-757 crossref(new window)

Mann ME, Bradley RS, Hughes MK (1998) Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature 392:779-787 crossref(new window)

Mann ME, Bradley RS, Hughes MK (1999) Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophys Res Lett 26:759-762 crossref(new window)

Mann ME, Zhang Z, Rutherford S, Bradley RS, Hughes MK, Shindell D, Ammann C, Faluvegi G, Ni F (2009) Global signatures and dynamical origins of the little ice age and medieval climate anomaly. Science 326:1256- 1260 crossref(new window)

Maximenko N, Niiler P, Rio M-H, Melnichenko O, Centurioni L, Chambers D, Zlotnicki V, Galperin B (2009) Mean dynamic topography of the ocean derived from satellite and drifting buoy data using three different techniques. J Atmos Ocean Tech 26:1910-1919. doi:10.1175/2009JTECHO672.1 crossref(new window)

McCartney MS, Curry R (1993) Transequatorial flow of Antarctic Bottom Water in the western Atlantic Ocean: Abyssal geostrophy at the equator. J Phys Oceanogr 23:1264-1276 crossref(new window)

Mignot J, Khodri M, Frankignoul C, Servonnat J (2011) Volcanic impact on the Atlantic Ocean over the last millennium. Clim Past 7:1439-1455 crossref(new window)

Niiler PP, Maximenko NA, McWilliams JC (2003) Dynamically balanced absolute sea level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations. Geophys Res Lett 30(22):2164. doi:10.1029/2003GL018628 crossref(new window)

North GR, Mengel JG, Short DA (1983) Simple energy balance model resolving the seasons and the continents: Application to the astronomical theory of the Ice Ages. J Geophys Res 88:6576-6586 crossref(new window)

Ortega P, Hawkins E, Sutton R (2011) Processes governing the predictability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in a coupled GCM. Clim Dyn 37:1771-1782. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1025-1 crossref(new window)

Orsi AH, Johnson GC, Bullister JL (1999) Circulation, mixing, and production of Antarctic Bottom Water. Prog Oceanogr 43:55-109 crossref(new window)

Ottera OH, Bentsen M, Drange H, Suo L (2010) External forcing as a metronome for Atlantic multidecadal variability. Nat Geosci 3:688-694 crossref(new window)

Porter SC (1986) Pattern and forcing of Northern Hemisphere glacier variations during the last millennium. Quaternary Res 26:27-48 crossref(new window)

Read JF, Pollard RT (1993) Structure and transport of the Antarctic circumpolar current and Agulhas return current at $40^{\circ}E$. J Geophys Res 98:12281-12295 crossref(new window)

Rintoul SR (1991) South Atlantic interbasin exchange. J Geophys Res 96(C2):2675-2692 crossref(new window)

Robock A (2000) Volcanic eruptions and climate. Rev Geophys 38(2):191-219 crossref(new window)

Sato M, Hansen JE, McCormick MP, Pollack JB (1993) Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850-1990. J Geophys Res 98(D12):22987-22994 crossref(new window)

Shcherbina AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL (2003) Direct observations of North Pacific ventilation: Brine rejection in the Okhotsk Sea. Science 302:1952-1955 crossref(new window)

Shindell DT, Schmidt GA, Mann ME, Faluvegi G (2004) Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600. J Geophys Res 109(D05104). doi:10.1029/2003JD004151

Stenchikov G, Robock A, Ramaswamy V, Schwarzkopf MD, Hamilton K, Ramachandran S (2002) Arctic Oscillation response to the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption: Effects of volcanic aerosols and ozone depletion. J Geophys Res 107(D24):4803. doi:10.1029/2002JD002090 crossref(new window)

Stenchikov G, Kirchner I, Robock A, Graf H-F, Antuna JC, Grainger RG, Lambert A, Thomason L (1998) Radiative forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. J Geophys Res 103:13837-13857 crossref(new window)

Stenchikov G, Hamilton K, Robock A, Ramaswamy V, Schwarzkopf MD (2004) Arctic Oscillation response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the SKYHI GCM with a realistic Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. J Geophys Res 109(D03112). doi:10.1029/2003JD003699

Stenchikov G, Delworth TL, Ramaswamy V, Stouffer RJ, Wittenberg A, Zeong F (2009) Volcanic signals in oceans.J Geophys Res 114(D16104). doi:10.1029/2008JD011673

Talley LD (1991) An Okhotsk Sea anomaly: Implications for ventilation in the North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res 38:S171- S190 crossref(new window)

Talley LD (1993) Distribution and formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water. J Phys Oceanogr 23:517-537 crossref(new window)

Talley LD (2003) Shallow, intermediate, and deep overturning components of the global heat budget. J Phys Oceanogr 33:530-560 crossref(new window)

Trenberth KE, Caron JM (2001) Estimates of meridional atmosphere and ocean heat transports. J Climate 14:3433-3443 crossref(new window)

Whitworth III T, Peterson RG (1985) Volume transport of the Antarctic circumpolar current from bottom pressure measurements. J Phys Oceanogr 15:810-816 crossref(new window)

Whitworth III T, Kim S-J, Orsi AH, Nowlin WD (1998) Water masses and mixing near the Antarctic Slope Front. Antarctic Res Series 75:1-27 crossref(new window)

Yang F, Schlesinger ME (2002) On the surface and atmospheric temperature changes following the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruption: A GCM study. J Geophys Res 107. doi:10.1029/2001JD000373

Zanchettin D, Timmreck C, Graf H-F, Rubino A, Lorenz S, Lohmann K, Kruger K, Jungclaus JH (2012) Bi-decadal variability excited in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system by strong tropical volcanic eruptions. Climate Dyn 39:419-444 crossref(new window)

Zangenberg N, Siedler G (1998) Path of the North Atlantic Deep Water in the Brazil basin. J Geophys Res 103(C3): 5419-5428 crossref(new window)