Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Histopathologic Observation of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) During a Spawning Season
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 36, Issue 2,  2014, pp.121-134
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.121
 Title & Authors
Histopathologic Observation of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) During a Spawning Season
Jeung, Hee-Do; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Limpanont, Yanin; Park, Kyung-Il; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Chul-Won; Kim, Hyung-Seop; Choi, Kwang-Sik;
  PDF(new window)
Sessile marine bivalves including mussels, oysters and clams are often used as a sentinel species in coastal environmental monitoring since changes in the environmental quality are often well preserved in their tissues and shells. In this study, we investigated overall health condition of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis on the south coast using histology. Reproductive condition as gonad index (GI), condition index (CI) as a ratio of the tissue weight to the shell weight, digestive gland atrophy (DGA), types of parasites, and pathologic conditions including erosion, necrosis, hemocyte infiltration, and neoplasia were examined from each histological preparation. GI decreased from March to July then increased from July to September and spawning mussel could be observed as early as in April and the activity continued until September. CI also followed the monthly changes in GI, indicating that decrease in CI was associated with the weight loss due to spawning. DGA increased from March to June, decreased in July and increased from July to September. High DGA values observed in June and September were coincided with spawning and high water temperature. Histology also showed high prevalence of erosion in the digestive gland in June (36.0%) and September (56.4%), suggesting that high water temperature and spawning acted as environmental stressors. No parasitic organism was identified during the survey, although some symbiotic copepods were observed. Histology was found to be useful and affordable technique in monitoring the overall health of mussel, providing useful pathologic information of the cells and tissues.
Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis;health condition;histopathology;digestive gland atrophy;gonad index;
 Cited by
국가해양환경정보통합시스템 (2009) 연안 관측정보. Accessed 15 June 2014 (MEIS (2009) Coastal Observation Information. http:// Accessed 15 June 2014)

통계청 (2010) 국가통계포털, 주제별 통계 농림어업분야. Accessed 15 June 2014(Statics Korea (2010) KOSIS (Korean Statistical Information Service). Accessed 15 June 2014)

Au DWT (2004) The application of histo-cytopathological biomarkers in marine pollution monitoring: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 48:817-834 crossref(new window)

Aarab N, Godal BF, Bechmann RK (2011) Seasonal variation of histopathological and histochemical markers of PAH exposure in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.). Mar Environ Res 71:213-217 crossref(new window)

Aarab N, Pampanin DM, Nævdal A, Oysæd KB, Gastaldi L, Bechmann RK (2008) Histopathology alterations and histochemistry measurements in mussel, Mytilus edulis collected offshore from an aluminium smelter industry (Norway). Mar Pollut Bull 57:569-574 crossref(new window)

Barber BJ (2004) Neoplastic diseases of commercially important marine bivalves. Aquat Living Resour 17:449-466 crossref(new window)

Barber BJ, MacCallum GS, Robinson SMC, McGladdery S (2002) Occurrence and lack of transmissibility of gonadal neoplasia in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, in Maine (USA) and Atlantic Canada. Aquat Living Resour 15:319-326 crossref(new window)

Berthe FCJ, Roux FL, Adlard RD, Figueras A (2004) Marteiliosis in molluscs: a review. Aquat Living Resour 17:433-448 crossref(new window)

Bignell JP, Dodge MJ, Feist SW, Lyons B, Martin PD, Taylor NGH, Stone D, Travalent L, Stentiford GD (2008) Mussel histopathology: effects of season, disease and species. Aquat Biol 2:1-15 crossref(new window)

Bignell JP, Stentiford GD, Taylor NGH, Lyons BP (2011) Histopathology of mussels (Mytilus sp.) from the Tamar estuary, UK. Mar Environ Res 72:25-32 crossref(new window)

Blateau D, Le Coguic Y, Mialhe E, Grizel H, Flamion G (1990) Traitement des moules (M. edulis) contre le copepode Mytilicola intestinalis. In: Figueras A (ed) 4th International Colloquium on Pathology in Marine Aquaculture. Vigo, Spain, pp 97-98

Bower SM (1992) Diseases and parasites of mussels. In: Gosling E (ed) The mussel Mytilus: ecology, physiology, genetics and culture. Elsevier Science Publisher B.V., New York, pp 543-563

Cappello T, Maisano M, D'Agata A, Natalotto A, Mauceri A, Fasulo S (2013) Effects of environmental pollution in caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Mar Environ Res 91:52-60 crossref(new window)

Ciocan C, Sunila I (2005) Disseminated neoplasia in blue mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the Black Sea, Romania. Mar Pollut Bull 50:1335-1339 crossref(new window)

Costa PM, Carreira S, Costa MH, Caeiro S (2013) Development of histopathological indices in a commercial marine bivalve (Ruditapes decussatus) to determine environmental quality. Aquat Toxicol 126:442-454 crossref(new window)

Couch JA (1985) Prospective study of infectious and noninfectious diseases in oysters and fishes in three Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Dis Aquat Org 1:59-82 crossref(new window)

Crespo-Gonzalez C, Rodriguez-Dominguez H, Soto-Bua M, Segade P, Iglesias R, Arias-Fernandez C, Garcia-Estevez JM (2008) Virus-like particles in Urastoma cyprinae, a turbellarian parasite of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Dis Aquat Org 79:83-86 crossref(new window)

Daguin C, Borsa P (2000) Genetic relationships of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. populations worldwide: evidence from nuclear-DNA markers. In Crame A, Harper E, Taylor J (eds) Bivalve Systematics and Evolution. Geological Society of London Special Publications 177, London, pp 389-397

Francisco CJ, Hermida MA, Santos MJ (2010) Parasites and symbionts from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) (Bivalves: Mytilidae) of the Aveiro Estuary Portugal. J Parasitol 96:200-205 crossref(new window)

Gosling E (2004) Bivalve Molluscs; biology, ecology and culture. Fishing News Books, Cornwall, 443 p

Howard D, Smith C (1983) Histological techniques for marine bivalve mollusks. NOAA technical memorandum NMFS-F/NEC-25. Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 97 p

Jeon MA, Kang JC, Lee JS (2013) Concentration of heavy metal and alteration of reproductive and histological biomarker of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Gamak Bay of the southern coast of Korea. Korean J Malacol 29:33-41 (in Korean) crossref(new window)

Jeung HD, Lee JY, Hong HK, Kang HS, Kim YO, Choi KS (2012) Cytochemical measurement of lysosomal responses in the digestive cells of wild pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea. Ocean Polar Res 34:151-163 (in Korean) crossref(new window)

Ju SM, Lee JS (2011) Microanatomical structure of the digestive diverticulum of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Korean J Microscopy 41:257-263 (in Korean)

Kang DH, Chu FLE, Yang HS, Lee CH, Koh HB, Choi KS (2010) Growth, reproductive condition, and digestive tubule atrophy of pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Gamakman Bay off the southern coast of Korea. J Shellfish Res 29:839-845 (in Korean) crossref(new window)

Kennedy VS, Newell RIE, Eble AF (1996) The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. A Maryland Sea Grant Book, College Park, Maryland, 734 p

Kim IH (2004) Poecilostomatoid copepods associated with bivalves in Korea and their distribution. Zool Stud 43:187-192 (in Korean)

Kim Y, Ashton-Alcox KA, Powell EN (2006) Histological Techniques for Marine Bivalve Molluscs: Update. Silver Spring, MD. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 27. 76 p

Kim Y, Powell EN (2006) Relationships among parasites and pathologies in sentinel bivalves: NOAA status and trends "Mussel Watch" program. Bull Mar Sci 79:83-112

Kim Y, Powell EN (2007) Distribution of parasites and pathologies in sentinel bivalves: NOAA status and trends "MUSSEL WATCH" program. J Shellfish Res 26:1115-1151 crossref(new window)

Krishnakumar PK, Casillas E, Varanasi U (1994) Effect of environmental contaminants on the health of Mytilus edulis from Puget Sound, Washingon, USA. I. Cytochemical measures of lysosomal responses in the digestive cells using automatic image analysis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 106:249-261 crossref(new window)

Lee IH, Chung EY, Son PW, Shin MS (2007) Reproductive ecology of the hard shelled mussel, Mytilus coruscus in Western Korea. Korean J Malacol 23:199-208 (in Korean)

Lee WK, Heo SJ, Park CK, Choi NH, Yang SW (2008) Gonadal development and reproductive cycle of the mussel, Mytilus edulis in the coastal waters of Yeosu, Korea. Chonnam Natl Univ 8:71-82 (in Korean)

Livingstone DR (1991) Organic xenobiotics metabolism in marine invertebrates. In: Giles R (ed) Advances in comparative and environmental physiology. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 45-185

McGladdery SE, Reinisch CL, MacCallum GS, Stephens RE, Walker CL, Davidson JT (2001) Haemic neoplasia in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria): Recent outbreaks in Atlantic Canada and discovery of a p53 gene homologue associated with the condition. Bull Aquac Assoc Can 101:19-26

Min DK, Lee JS, Koh DB, Je JG (2004) Mollusks in Korea. Hanguel Graphics, Busan, 566 p (in Korean)

Moore MN, Lowe DM, Koehler A (2004) Biological effects of contaminants: Measurements of lysosomal membrane stability. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences (TIMES), vol 36. ICES, Copenhagen, 31 p

Moore MN, Viarengo A, Donkin P, Hawkins AJS (2007) Autophagic and lysosomal reactions to stress in the hepatopancreas of blue mussels. Aquat Toxicol 84:80-91 crossref(new window)

Newell RIE, Hilbish TJ, Koehn RK, Newell CJ (1982) Temporal variation in the reproductive cycle of Mytilus edulis L. (Bivlavia, Mytilidae) from localities on the east coast of the United States. Biol Bull 162:299-310 crossref(new window)

Okaniwa N, Miyaji T, Sasaki T, Tanabe K (2010) Shell growth and reproductive cycle of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Tokyo Bay, Japan: relationship with environmental conditions. Plankton Benthos Res 5:214-220 crossref(new window)

Park KY, Lim HS (1995) On the growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) on the hard substrate in the Youngsan River estuary in Mokpo, Korea. Bull Inst Litt Envi 12:131-143 (in Korean)

Ruiz M, Darriba S, Rodriguez R, Lopez C (2013) Histological survey of symbionts and other conditions of pod razor clam Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) in Galicia (NW Spain). J Invertebr Pathol 112:74-82 crossref(new window)

Seed R (1969) The ecology of Mytilus edulis L. (Lamellibranchiata) on exposed rocky shores. I. Breeding and settlement. Oecologia 3:277-316 crossref(new window)

Sparks AK (1985) Synopsis of invertebrate pathology exclusive of Insects. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., New York, 423 p

Stock JH (1993) Copepoda (Crustacea) associated with commercial and non-commercial Bivalvia in the East Scheldt, The Netherlands, Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 63:61-64

Suh HL, Choi SD (1990) Two copepods (Crustacea) parasitic on the Blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the Yongsan River Estuary in Korea. Korean J Fish Aquat Sci 23:137-140 (in Korean)

Webb S (2008) Pathogens and parasites of the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus: Assessment of the threats faced by New Zealand aquaculture. Cawthron Report No. 1334, 28 p

Wi CH, Chang YJ, Lee SJ, Hur YB, Lee JS (2003) Sexual maturation and Gametogenic cycle of the hard shelled mussel, Mytilus coruscus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Korean J Aquacult 16:245-251 (in Korean)

Winstead JT (1995) Digestive tubule atrophy in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), exposed to salinity and starvation stress. J Shellfish Res 14:105-111

Winstead JT, Volety AK, Tolley SG (2004) Parasitic and symbiotic fauna in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected from the Caloosahatchee River and estuary in Florida. J Shellfish Res 23:831-840

Zaldibar B, Cancio I, Marigomez I (2008) Epithelial cell renewal in the digestive gland and stomach of mussels: season, age and tidal regime related variations. Histol Histopathol 23:281-290

Yoo MS (1992) A taxonomical study on the shell morphology of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis Lamarck in Korea and Japan. Bull Korean Fish Soc 25(3):165-170 (in Korean)