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The Scope of Potential Duties for Environment Protection in the Regulation on the Exploitation for Polymetalic Nodules in the Area
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  • Journal title : Ocean and Polar Research
  • Volume 37, Issue 1,  2015, pp.81-90
  • Publisher : Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
  • DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.081
 Title & Authors
The Scope of Potential Duties for Environment Protection in the Regulation on the Exploitation for Polymetalic Nodules in the Area
Kim, Jung-Eun; Park, Seong-Wook;
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 Abstract
International Seabed Authority (ISA) is currently developing rules with regard to exploitation of manganese nodules which will be contained in its first regulations governing the exploitation of deep seabed mineral resources. A stakeholder survey was conducted in the early 2014 by ISA with the aim of facilitating participation of interested entities in the development process of the rules. The stakeholders who had replied to the survey included existing contractors, sponsoring States, environmentalists, academics, and nongovernmental organizations. Opinions given by them largely reflect their own interests. This paper aims to clarify the scope of the obligations regarding the environmental protection which may be imposed on contractors under the new regulations for the exploitation of manganese nodules. To do so, it first analyses the express provisions on environmental protection applicable to deep seabed mining included in the Law of the Sea Convention, its agreement on implementation of Part XI, and the regulations on exploration for manganese nodules. Secondly, it categorizes these obligations based on the categories of international obligations suggested by Combacau and Alland. Based on the categorizations this paper concludes that, in addition to the existing duties to protect deep seabed environment within the Law of the Sea Convention system, the following new obligations could be added: conservation of exploitation sites for a limited time after the contract is ceased; taking all necessary measures for rehabilitation of destroyed ecosystems that occurredas a result of mining activities; monitoring exploitation sites for a limited period time after the contract is ceased; observing rules and standards on safety of ships and environmental protection adopted under IMO instruments; regulation on the discharge of mine tailings from the facilities used for exploitation of deep sea minerals. Lastly, this paper attempts to provide ways of reflecting national interests in terms of potential obligations which may be included in the new regulations.
 Keywords
ISA stakeholder survey;manganese nodules;exploitation code;obligation of conduct;obligation of result;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
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